Annette, N., 2004. Factors influencing utilization of postnatal services in Mulago and Mengo Hospitals, Kampala, Uganda: A Mini Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Physiotherapy in the Department of Physiotherapy, University of Western Cape.
Griffin, S., 2006. Literature review on sexual and reproductive health rights: Universal access to services, focusing on east and Southern Africa and South Asia. London: Realizing Rights.
Kaseje, D., R. Olayo, C. Musita, C. Oindo, C. Wafula and R. Muga, 2009. Evidence based dialogue with communities for district health systems performance improvement. Global Public Health, 00(0): 1-16.
Kenya Demographic and Health Survey Report, 2010. Nairobi: Kenya Bureau of Statistics.
Ministry of Health, 2006. Reversing the trends: The second national health sector strategic plan of Kenya: Taking the Essential Package for Health to the COMMUNITY: A Strategy for the Delivery of LEVEL ONE SERVICES, Health Sector Reform Secretariat. Nairobi.
Ministry of Planning and National Development, 2005. Courtesy of UNDP Kenya and the Government of Finland. Millennium Development Goals in Kenya: Needs and Costs.
Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, 2009. National road map for accelerating the attainment of MDGs related to maternal and newborn health in Kenya. Nairobi. Available from http://www.health.go.ke.
Okolocha, C., J. Chiwuzie, S. Braimoh, J. Unuigbe and P. Olumeko, 1998. Socio-cultural factors in maternal morbidity and mortality: A study of semi urban community in Southern Nigeria. Epidemiol Community Health, 52(5): 293-297.
(2017). The Perceptions of Mothers on the Use of Non- Skilled Maternal Healthcare in Kenya. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(3): 259-270. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1/2017.7.3/1.3.259.270
Forty three percent (43%) of deliveries in Kenya takes place under the
supervision of skilled attendants. But the Nyanza province in Western
Kenya still registers lower proportions of facility deliveries (34
percent). But in Siaya district of the Nyanza province, only 30 percent
of mothers utilize skilled maternal health care. A sequential
exploratory mixed study was conducted in Uranga, North Alego and Karemo
divisions of Siaya district and interviewed 1197 mothers who had home
deliveries a year prior to the study. Another 11 key informants were
interviewed comprising community specialists in the Luo traditional
maternal healthcare medicine, skilled health workers serving in the
facilities located in each of the three divisions; traditional Luo
medicine men and women; and religious maternal health care providers
who also doubled as spiritual overseers within their divisions. The
objective of the study was to establish the perceptions of mothers on
the use of non-skilled maternal healthcare. The study established the
frequencies and the effect size of the selected variables whose
relationships were measured and indicated by the p value of the Wald
statistics in a multinomial regression model. The Wald chi-square p
value <0.05 indicated significant results while qualitative data was
manually analyzed by condensing and organizing responses in meta cards,
teasing them out into common themes and then clustering them in tandem
with the objective of the study. Each cluster was partitioned and coded
(from a code list, which the researcher and the team developed) then
the emerging phrases were summarized, compressed and assembled to draw
conclusions and recommendations. The study found that as long as the
skilled maternal healthcare system remain ineffective in providing
accepted remedies related to correcting and reversing taboos,
abominations, curses and healing the spiritual being of the mothers,
then the mothers will continue utilizing the non skilled maternal
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the
opinions of mothers on the use of non-skilled maternal health care. Most
papers have focused on the use of skilled attendants and have not
effectively interrogated the opinions of women on why they specifically
use non-skilled care.
A Study on Determining the Influence of Organizational Identification on Organizational Justice and Organizational Silence
Adams, J.S., 1965. Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press, 2: 267-299.
Ashfort, B.E. and F. Mael, 1989. Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1): 2039.
Ashforth, B.E., S.H. Harrison and K.G. Corley, 2008. Identification İn organizations: An examination of four fundamental questions. Journal of Management, 34(3): 325-374.
Bartels, J., 2006. Organizational identification and communication: Employees evaluation of internal communication and its effects on identification at different organizational levels, enschede. The Netherlands: University of Twente.
Bartels, J., A. Pruyn, M.D. Jong and I. Joustra, 2007. Multiple organizational identification levels and the impact of perceived external prestige and communication climate. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(2): 173190.
Blader, S.L., 2007. What determines peoples fairness judgments? Identification and outcomes İnfluence procedural justice evaluations under uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43(6): 986-994.
Bowen, F. and K. Blackmon, 2003. Spirals of silence: The dynamics effects of diversity on organizational voice. Journal of Management Studies 40(6): 1393-1417.
Çakıcı, A., 2007. Örgütlerde Sessizlik: Sessizliğin Teorik Temelleri Ve Dinamikleri. Ç.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 16(1): 145-162.
Çakıcı, A., 2008. Örgütlerde Sessizlik Tercihi Ve Sessizlik Türleri, İş Ve Özel Yaşama Psikolojik Bakışların İçinde, Editör: Tarık Solmuş, İstanbul: Epsilon Yayınları.
Çakıcı, A. and A.C. Çakıcı, 2007. İşgören Sessizliği: Konuşmak Mı Zor, Sessiz Kalmak Mı Zor?, 15. Ulusal Yönetim Ve Organizasyon Kongresi. Sakarya Üniversitesi. pp: 389-400.
Cheung, M.F.Y. and M.C.C. Law, 2008. Relationships of organizational justice and organizational ıdentification: The mediating effects of perceived organizational support in Hong Kong. Asia Pasific Review, 14(2): 213-231.
Cohen-Charash, Y. and P.E. Spector, 2001. The role of justice İn organizations: A meta-analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86(2): 278321.
Colquıtt, J.A., D.E. Conlon, M.J. Wesson, C.O.L.H. Porter and N.K. Yee, 2001. Justice at the millennium: A meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psyhology, 86(3): 425-445.
Crosby, F.J., 1976. A model of egotistical relative deprivation. Psychological Review, 83(2): 85113.
De Cremer, D., 2005. Procedural and distributive justice effects moderated by organizational identification. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(1): 4- 13.
De Cremer, D., 2006. Unfair treatment and revenge taking: The role of collective identification and feelings of disappointmnet, group dynamics: Theory. Research, And Practice, 10(3): 220-232.
De Cremer, D. and S.L. Blader, 2006. Why do people care about procedural fairness? The importance of belongingness İn responding and attending to procedures. European Journal of Psychology, 36(2): 211-228.
Dutton, J.E., J.M. Dukerich and C.V. Harquail, 1994. Organizational images and membership commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39(2): 239-263.
Dyne, V.L., A. Soon and C.B. Isabel, 2003. Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6): 1359-1392.
Eker, G., 2006. Örgütsel Adalet Algısı Boyutları Ve İş Doyumu Üzerindeki Etkileri, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İzmir.
Folger, R. and R. Cropanzano, 1998. Organizational justice and human resource management. USA: Sage Publications Inc.
Fuller, J.B., L. Marler, K. Hester, L. Frey and C. Relyea, 2006. Construed external image and organizational identification: A test of the moderating influence of need for self-esteem. Journal of Social Psychology, 146(6): 701-716.
Gilliland, S.W. and D. Chan, 2009. Örgütsel adalet: Teori, Yöntemler Ve Uygulamalar İçinde N. Anderson, D.S. Ones, H.K.. Sinangir, C.Viswesvaran (Ed). Endüstri, İş Ve Örgüt Psikolojisi El Kitabı, Cilt 2. İstanbul: Literatür Yayıncılık.
Greenberg, J., 1987. A taxonomy of organizational justice theories. Academy of Management Review, 12(1): 9-22.
Greenberg, J., 1990. Organizational justice: Yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of Management, 16(2): 399-432.
Greenberg, J. and R.J. Bies, 1992. Establishing the role of empirical studies of organizational justice İn philosophical inquiries İnto business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 11(5/6): 433-444.
Hall, D.T., B. Schneider and H.T. Nygren, 1970. Personal factors in organizational identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15(2): 176-190.
Hirschman, A.O., 1970. Exit, voice, and loyalty. Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge/Mass: Harvard University Press.
Hogg, A.M. and J.D. Terry, 2000. Social identity and self-categorization processes İn organizational context. Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 121-140.
Homans, G., 1961. Social behavior. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Irak, D.U., 2004. Örgütsel Adalet: Ortaya Çıkışı, Kuramsal Yaklaşımlar Ve Bugünkü Durumu. Türk Psikoloji Yazıları, 7(13): 25-43.
İşcan, Ö.F. and A. Ve Naktiyok, 2004. Çalışanların Örgütsel Bağdaşımlarının Belirleyicileri Olarak Örgütsel Bağlılık Ve Örgütsel Adalet Algıları. Ankara Üniversitesi Sbf Dergisi, 59(1): 181-281.
James, K., 1993. The social context of organizational justice: Cultural, intergroup and structural effects on justice behaviors and perceptions, In R.Cropanzano (Ed.), Justice in the workplace: Approaching fairness in human resources management. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp: 21-50.
Johannesen, R.L., 1974. The functions of silence: A plea for communication research. Western Journal of Communication (Includes Communication Reports), 38(1): 25-35.
Knippenberg, D.V., S. Van and C.M. Els, 2000. Foci and correlates of organizational identification. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(2): 137-147.
Knoll, M. and D.R. Van, 2013. Do i hear the whistle? A first attempt to measure four forms of employee silence and their correlates. Journal Business Ethics, 113(2): 349-362.
Konowsky, M.A., 2000. Understanding procedural justice and its impact on business organizations. Journal of Management, 26(6): 489-511.
Köse, C.G., 2009. Örgütsel Özdeşleşmenin Çalışanların Sürekli İyileştirme Çabalarına Katkısı: Bir Araştırma, Yayınlanmış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
Lee, H.-R., 2000. An empirical study of organizational justice as a mediator of the relationships among leader-member exchange and job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover ıntentions in the lodging ındustry. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Blackburg: Verginia Tech.
Lerner, M.J., 1977. The justice motive: Some hypotheses as to its origins and forms. Journal of Personality, 45(1): 152.
Leventhal, G.S., 1976. The distribution of rewards and resources in groups and organizations. In L. Berkowitz & W. Walster (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology. New York: Academic Press, 9: 91131.
Leventhal, G.S., J. Karuza and W.R. Fry, 1980. Beyond fairness: A theory of allocation preferences, In G. Mikula (Ed.), Justice and social interaction. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp: 167-218.
Mael, F.A. and E.B. Ashforth, 1992. Alumni and their alma mater: A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational İdentifiction. Journal of Organiational Behavior, 13(2): 103123.
Mael, F.A. and E.B. Ashforth, 1995. Loyal from day one: Biodata, organizational identification and turnover among newcomers. Personnel Psychology, 48(2): 309-333.
Michel, A., R. Stegmaier and K. Sonntag, 2010. I scratch your back you scratch mine. Do procedural justice and organizational identification matter for employees cooperation during change? Journal of Change Management, 10(1): 4159.
Milliken, F.J., E.W. Morrison and P.E. Hewlin, 2003. An exploratory study of employee silence: Issues that employees don't communicate upward and why. Journal of Management Studies, 40(6): 1-34.
Moorman, R.H., 1991. Relationship between organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors: Do fairness perceptions İnfluence employee citizenship? Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(6): 845-855.
Morrison, E.W. and F.J. Milliken, 2000. Organizational silence: A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic. Academy of Management Review, 25(4): 706-714.
Niehoff, B.P. and R.H. Ve Moorman, 1993. Justice as a mediator of the relationship between methods of monitoring and organizational citizenship behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 36(3): 527-556.
Olkkonen, M.E. and J. Ve Lipponen, 2006. Relationships between organizational justice, identification with organization and work unit, and group-related outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 100(2): 202-215.
Özdevecioğlu, M., 2003. Algılanan Örgütsel Adaletin Bireylerarası Saldırgan Davranışlar Üzerindeki Etkilerinin Belirlenmesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma, Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi Ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 21(Temmuz-Aralık): 77-96.
Pinder, C.C. and K.P. Harlos, 2001. Employee silence: Quiescence and acquiescence as responses to perceived injustice. Research in Personnel and Human Research Management, 20: 331-369.
Polat, M., 2009. Örgütsel Özdeşleşmenin Öncülleri Ve Ardılları Üzerine Bir Saha Çalışması, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Uludağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Bursa.
Polat, S., 2007. Ortaöğretim Öğretmenlerinin Örgütsel Adalet Algıları, Örgütsel Güven Düzeyleri İle Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışları Arasındaki İlişki. Yayımlanmamış Doktora Tezi. Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Kocaeli.
Raykov, T. and G.A. Marcoulides, 2006. A first course İn structural equation modeling. 2nd Edn., London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Reade, C., 2001. Antecedents of organizational identification İn multinational corporations: Fostering psychological attachment to the local subsidiary and the global organization. International Journal of Human Resoune Management, 12(8): 1269-1291.
Smidts, A., C.B.M. Van Riel and A.T.H. Pruyn, 2001. The İmpact of employee communication and perceived external prestige on organizational İdentification. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5): 1051-1062.
Stouffer, S.A., E.A. Suchman, L.C. DeVinney, S.A. Starr and R.M. Williams., 1949. The American soldier: Adjustment to army life. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1.
Tak, B. and A. Ve Çiftçioğlu, 2009. Algılanan Örgütsel Prestij İle Örgütsel Bağlılık Ve Örgütsel Özdeşleşme Arasındaki İlişkilerin İncelenmesine Yönelik Bir Araştırma, Akdeniz Üniversitesi İ.İ.B.F. Dergisi, 18: 100-116.
Tangirala, S. and R. Ramanujam, 2008. Employee silence on critical work issues: The cross level effects of procedural justice climate. Personnel Psychology, 61(1): 3768.
Tangirala, S. and R. Ramanujam, 2009. The sound of loyalty: Voice Or Silence. J. Greenberg Ve M. Edwards. İçinde Voice and Silence in Organizations. UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Taşkıran, E., 2011. Liderlik Ve Örgütsel Sessizlik Arasındaki Etkileşim Örgütsel Adaletin Rolü, Beta Basım A.Ş., İstanbul.
Thibaut, J. and L. Walker, 1975. Procedural justice: A psychological analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Tokgöz, E., 2012. Relationship between organizational trust, organizational Identification and organizational citizenship behavior, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Balıkesir Universitesi, Balıkkesir.
Tolman, E.C., 1943. Identification and the post-war world. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 38(2): 141-148.
Tsamitis, D.H., 2009. An exploration of the ınfluence of ınstitutional factors and practices on organizational ıdentification ın students enrolled ın transnational university partnership programs. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, US.
Tüzün, K.İ., 2006. Örgütsel Güven, Örgütsel Kimlik Ve Örgütsel Özdeşleşme İlişkisi; Uygulamalı Bir Çalışma. Yayınlanmış Doktora Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara.
Tyler, T.R. and R.J. Bies, 1990. Beyond formal procedures: The interpersonal context of procedural justice, In J. Carroll (Ed.), Advances in applied social psychology: Business settings. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. pp: 77-98.
Vakola, M. and D. Bouradas, 2005. Antecedents and consequences of organisational silence: An empirical investigation. Employee Relations, 27(5): 441 458.
Van Dick, R., U. Wagner, J. Stellmacher and O. Christ, 2004. The utility of a broader conceptualization of organizational identification: Which aspects really matter? Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77: 171191.
Vokola, M. and D. Bouradas, 2005. Antecedents and consequences of organizational silence: An empirical investigation Employee Relations, 27(5): 441-458.
Yürür, Ş., 2008. Örgütsel Adalet İle İş Tatmini Ve Çalışanların Bireysel Özellikleri Arasındaki İlişkilerin Analizine Yönelik Bir Araştırma, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi Ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, 13(2): 295-312.
(2017). A Study on Determining the Influence of Organizational Identification on Organizational Justice and Organizational Silence. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(3): 242-258. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1/2017.7.3/184.108.40.2068
This study aims at determining how the organizational identification
levels of individuals affect their organizational justice perception and
organizational silence behavior. The research was performed with
contribution of 213 people employed at two five-star hotels located at
the province of Afyonkarahisar. The relationships and interactions among
the variables of the study were determined through testing the
structural regression models established at YEM. The regression models
were confirmed as a result of the analyses and statistically significant
relationships were observed among the variables. It was determined that
organizational identification has significant and positive effects on
the distributive justice, procedural justice and interactional justice
dimensions of organizational justice. Besides, the research results
revealed that organizational identification has negative significant
effect on acquiescent and defensive silence dimensions of organizational
silence, while it has positive significant effect on prosocial silence.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated on the
impact of identification over justice and silence. In addition, this
research contributing in the existing literature that is found to have
significant relations between research variables.
An Investigation of Relationship between Spiritual Leadership Style with Organizational Commitment among Tehran University of Medical Sciences Staffs
Allen, N.J. and J.P. Meyer, 1997. Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research and application. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Ansari, M.E., S. Maleki and S. Mazraeh, 2013. An analysis of factors affected on employees counterproductive work behavior: The moderating role of job burnout and engagement. Journal of American Science, 9(1): 9-35.
Ashmos, D.P. and D. Duchon, 2000. Spirituality at work: A conceptualization and measure. Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2): 134-145.
Dargahi, H. and G. Shaham, 2015. The relationship between organizational commitment and non-ethical tendency among the employees of Tehran university of medical sciences. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 8(4): 46-57.
Dargahi, H. and G.S. Tehrani, 2014. The relationship between management ethics and organizational commitment among employees of Tehran university of medical sciences. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 7(1): 43-52.
Freeman, G.T., 2011. Spirituality and servant leadership: A conceptual model and research proposal. Emanging Leadership Journeys, 4(1): 120-140.
Fry, L.W., 2005. Introduction to the leadership quarterly special issue: Toward a paradigm of spiritual leadership. Leadership Quarterly, 16(5): 22-619.
Fry, L.W., 2008. Spiritual leadership: State-of-the-art and future directions for theory, research, and practice. Spirituality in business. US: Palgrave Macmillan. pp: 106-124.
Fry, L.W., L.L. Matherly and R. Quimet, 2010. The spiritual leadership balanced scorecard business model: The case of the Gordon Bleu-Tomasso corporation. Journal of Management, Spirituality & Religion, 7(4): 283-314.
Ghahramani, D.T., 2013. he relationship between spiritual intelligence and employees engagement managers in Iranian oil pipeline and telecommunication company. MA. Dissertation in Public Management. Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran, Iran.
Gibbons, P., 2000. Spirituality at work: Definitions, measures, assumptions, and validity claims. work and spirit: A reader of new spiritual paradigms for organizations. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press. pp: 31-111.
Greenleaf, P.K. and L.C. Spears, 2002. Servant leadership: A journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness. Paulist Press.
Hariri, N. and Z. Zarrinabadi, 2012. Analyses of demographic spiritual intelligence librarians of Isfahan public university. Journal of Library and Information Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 1(2): 29-44.
Humphreys, J.H. and W.O. Einstein, 2003. Nothing new under the sun: Transformational leadership from a historical perspective. Management Decision, 41(1): 95-85.
Karadag, E., 2009. Spiritual leadership and organizational culture: A study of structural equation modeling. Theory and Practice Educational Sciences, 9(3): 405-1391.
King, D.B., 2008. Rethinking claims of spiritual intelligence: A definition, model and measure. Applications of modeling in the natural and social sciences program,. Canada: Trent University.
Korac- Kakabadse, N., A. Kouzmin and A. Kakabadse, 2002. Spirituality and leadership praxis. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(3): 82-165.
Monograph on the Internet, 2014. Anonymous. Spiritual leadership model. International Institute for Spiritual Leadership. Available from spiritual leadership.com [Accessed 2014].
Naderi, N. and R. Hoveida, 2013. The relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and human resources empowerment (HRE) case study: University of Isfahan (Iran). International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(2): 69.
Nardon, L. and P.M. Steers, 2008. The new global manager: Leadership cultures on the fly. Organizational Dynamics, 37(1): 47-60.
Pfeiffer, J., 2003. Business and the spirit. Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance. New York: ME Sharpe. pp: 29-45.
Piri, R. and R. Fazelian, 2013. The impression of spiritual leadership education on staffs organizational commitment in Eastern Azerbajjan Province, Iran. Organizational Behavior in Education, 1(2): 95-104.
Raei, D.M., M. Gooderzi and A.Z. Karimi, 2012. The effect of spiritual values on employees organizational commitment and its models. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Studies, 62: 159-166.
Rastegar, A., M. Jangholi, F. Heidari and H. Heidarinia, 2012. The role of spiritual leadership in organizational identification. Journal of Public Management Researches, 5(16): 39-63.
Reave, L., 2005. Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectualness. Leadership Quarterly, 16(5): 655-687.
Salami, S.O., 2008. Demographic and psychological factors predicting organizational commitment among industrial workers. Anthropologist, 10(1): 31-38.
Sayar, S., 2008. The relationship between spiritual intelligence and mental health of 15 years people and older. MA. Dissertation in General Psychology. Payam Nour University of Behshar, Iran.
Sendjaya, S. and A. Pekreti, 2010. Servant leadership as antecedent of trust in organizations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(7): 643-663.
Shojaie, K.F., 2011. The relationship between spiritual leadership with quality of work life among the schools staffs of Qazvin university of medical sciences. Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2(4): 62-68.
Stark, R. and R. Finke, 2000. Acts of faith: Explaining the human side of religion. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Yuen, C.S., W.-C. Wu, C.C. Sheng, L.C. Tzu, K.J. Yuan, W.H. Ching, L.Y. Tz and S.I. Lee, 2015. Organizational justice, trust, and identification and their effect on organizational commitment in hospital nursing staff. BMC Health Services Research, 15(1): 1.
(2017). An Investigation of Relationship between Spiritual Leadership Style with Organizational Commitment among Tehran University of Medical Sciences Staffs. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(3): 234-241. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1/2017.7.3/220.127.116.11
Introduction: Spiritual Leadership is essential due to various issues
among leaders. To meet the changing and challenging demands of their
environment in the twenty first century. This research was aimed to
determine the relationship between spiritual leadership and
organizational commitment of staffs in the headquarter sections of
Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Methods: The present
research was cross sectional, descriptive and analytical study which was
induced at 2015. The sample size of this study consisted of 150 staffs.
Data collected using the questionnaires of Fry spiritual leadership and
organizational commitment assessment by Meyer and Allen and analyzed by
SPSS software. Findings: There was a significant relationship between
spiritual leadership with organizational commitment. Conclusion:
Spiritual leadership brings about organizational commitment in order to
satisfy staffs needs and expectations, and reveal their potential
abilities by attempting to achieve organizational goals.
This study contributes in the existing literature is to add the body of
knowledge about organizational behavior, specially organizational
commitment of the staffs. This study documents the spiritual leadership
is an important factor for improvement of organizational commitment of
staffs, but it is not the only way.
Human Rights and Police Supervision Model: Indonesias Case
Antara News, 2016. Legislator: Pemda Perlu Dukung Operasional Polsek. Retrieved from http://www.antarajateng.com/detail/legislator-pemda-perlu-dukung-operasional-polsek-kuat.html [Accessed 15 August 2016].
Bayley, D.H., 2001. Democratising the police abroad: What to do and how to do it. Washington: Department of Justice.
Beltran, A., 2009. Protect and serve? The status of police in central America. Washington: WOLA.
Berita, S., 2015. Kapolsek Tewas Dianiaya Massa, Bukti Polmas Tidak Berjalan. Retrieved from http://sp.beritasatu.com/home/kapolsek-tewas-dianiaya-massa-bukti-polmas-tidak-berjalan/33033 [Accessed 15 August 2016].
Carty, K., 2008. Guidebook on democratic policing. Viena: OSCE Secretary General.
CNN Indonesia, 2016. Retrieved from http://www.cnnindonesia.com/nasional/20150127203821-12-27797/tiki-taka-kpk-dan-ppatk-ungkap-rekening-gendut-budi-gunawan/ [Accessed 15 August 2016].
Detik com, 2016. Keputusan Jokowi Soal KPK-Polri Masih Menuai Kritik Karena Diamkan Kriminalisasi. Retrieved from http://news.detik.com/read/2015/02/18/193646/2837236/10/keputusan-jokowi-soal-kpk-polri-masih-menuai-kritik-karena-diamkan-kriminalisasi [Accessed 16 August2016].
Detik com, 2016. Polemik KPK-Polri, ICW: Kita Butuh Dukungan MK. Retrieved from http://news.detik.com/read/2015/01/26/183652/2814531/10/polemik-kpk-polri-icw-kita-butuh-dukungan-mk [Accessed 15 August 2016].
Detik com, 2016. Jokowi Jalankan Rekomendasi Tim 9 atau Nurut KIH. Retrieved from http://news.detik.com/read/2015/02/18/130538/2836581/10/jokowi-jalankan-rekomendasi-tim-9-atau-nurut-kih [Accessed 16 August 2016].
Hukumonline, 2016. Polri Siap Dikritik Ayas Dugaan Pelanggaran HAM. Retrieved from http://www.hukumonline.com/berita/baca/lt510baaa6dfc30/polri-siap-dikritik-atas-dugaan-pelanggaran-ham [Accessed 14 August 2016].
ICG, 2012. Indonesia: Akibat Fatal dari Pemolisian. ICG: Jakarta.
JPPN, 2016. Kekerasan, 200 Oknum Polisi Dipecat Tiap Tahun. Retrieved from http://www.jpnn.com/read/2014/12/09/274429/Kekerasan,-200-Oknum-Polisi-Dipecat-Tiap-Tahun, See also Okezone. (2016). Korban Kekerasan Aparat Gruduk Mabes Polri. http://news.okezone.com/read/2014/12/08/337/1076282/korban-kekerasan-aparat-geruduk-mabes-polri (accessed 12 August 2016) [Accessed 12 August 2016].
Kadar, A., 2001. Police in transition: Essays on the police forces in transition countries. Budapest: Central University Press.
Kompas, 2016. Dua Oknum Polisi Terlibat Pelecehan Seksual, Kapolda Marah Besar. Retrieved from http://regional.kompas.com/read/2014/05/26/1413083/Dua.Oknum.Polisi.Terlibat.Pelecehan.Seksual.Kapolda.Marah.Besar [Accessed 16 August 2016].
Kompas, 2016. Mengadu ke Polisi, Malah Dicabuli Kapolsek. Retrieved from http://regional.kompas.com/read/2013/03/03/0757517/Mengadu.ke.Polisi.Malah.Dicabuli.Kapolsek [Accessed 16 August 2016].
Kompas, 2016. IPW: Polri Tebang Pilih Tangani Kasus MA dan Obor Rakyat. Retrieved from http://nasional.kompas.com/read/2014/10/30/07402841/IPW.Polri [Accessed 16August 2016].
Kompas, 2016. Kapolres Bogor Tindaklanjuti Dugaan Penyimpangan Penyidik. Retrieved from http://megapolitan.kompas.com/read/2013/01/23/15312723/Kapolres.Bogor.Tindak.Lanjuti.Dugaan.Penyimpangan.Penyidik, See also Muradi. (2010). Polri, Politik & Korupsi. Bandung: PSKN Unpad. Pp. 23-27 [Accessed 16 August 2016].
Kontras, 2015. Catatan Evaluasi Kinerja POLRI 2010-2011 pada Hari Bhayangkara Ke-65. Retrieved from http://kontras.org/index.php?hal=siaran_pers&id=1319.
Okezone News, 2016. Sultan Sesalkan Pembubaran Diskusi Irshad Manji. Retrieved from http://news.okezone.com/read/2012/05/11/510/628257/sultan-sesalkan-pembubaran-diskusi-irshad-manji, See also Tempo. (2015). Kronologi Pembubaran Diskusi di Salihara http://www.tempo.co/read/news/2012/05/05/214401852/Kronologi-Pembubaran-Diskusi-di-Salihara (accessed 13 August 2016). http://news.okezone.com/read/2014/12/08/337/1076282/korban-kekerasan-aparat-geruduk-mabes-polri (accessed 12 August 2016) [Accessed 13th August 2016].
Okezonenews, 2016. Precinct leader is a specific & separated issues in POLRI Affair. Retrieved from http://news.okezone.com/read/2010/10/27/338/387013/kriminalitas-tinggi-7-polsek-di-dki-dipimpin-akbp, Kriminalitas Tinggi , 7 Polsek di DKI dipimpin AKBP [Accessed 15 2016].
Pino, N.W. and W.D. Michael, 2006. Democratic policing in transitional and developing countries. London: Ashgate.
Rakyat, M., 2016. Kekerasan Pada Aparat Merusak Sistem Hukum. Retrieved from http://www.rmol.co/read/2013/04/01/104643/Kekerasan-Pada-Aparat-Merusak-Sistem-Hukum, See also Berita Satu (2015). http://sp.beritasatu.com/home/aksi-kekerasan-polisi-pada-warga-dan-wartawan-dikecam/44475. (accessed 15 August 2016). [Accessed 15 August 2016].
Republika, 2016. Kompolnas: SP3 Kasus Ari Sigit Diskresi Berlebihan. Retrieved from http://nasional.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/hukum/13/10/03/mu3aqx-kompolnas-sp3-kasus-ari-sigit-diskresi-berlebihan [Accessed 15 August 2016].
Republika, 2016. Demi Rakyat Polemik KPK-Polri Harus Diakhiri. Retrieved from http://www.republika.co.id/berita/nasional/hukum/15/01/26/nirtlv-demi-rakyat-polemik-kpkpolri-harus-diakhiri [Accessed 15 August 2016].
Tempo, 2016. Polwan Juga Banyak di KPK dan Densus 88. Retrieved from http://www.tempo.co/read/news/2013/09/01/173509257/Polwan-Juga-Banyak-di-KPK-dan-Densus-88 [Accessed 16 August 2016].
(2017). Human Rights and Police Supervision Model: Indonesias Case. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(3): 226-233. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1/2017.7.3/18.104.22.168
This paper will discuss two issues related to poor implementation of
human rights by Police, based on four measuring analyzes of human rights
implementation based on role and function as follow: the use of
violence, human rights violations, act of disparage and militaristic
culture in Police tasks. This paper also argues that human rights
implementation in the Police are still not fully guaranteed and
improved. This is due to four reasons: prolonging police culture,
inappropriate police discretion, the role of Precinct as key implementer
of police policies, as well as the improper role of Police as
state-agency of violence in term of implementation. The second issue of
this paper is a model of police supervision in order to be effectively
implements Human Rights for Police in performing tasks, roles and
functions to serve the public.
This paper is contributing to part of strengthen the implementation of
democratic policing, which adopt the values of human rights is part of
the democratic affirmation of how policing is run. So far strengthening
discourse on the implementation of the values of human rights is
reflected in the extent of the curriculum and implementations in the
police, as its a mirror for the presence of the police at this time as
part of the scheme to be integrated in democratic governance.
Teaching-Learning Model of Islamic Education at Madrasah Based on Mosque in Singapore
AIiff and Yusraini, 2014. A study on the strategies and practice of teaching among trainee teachers during the teaching training. Journal of Islamic Education, 2(1): 1-6.
Fathiyah, M.F., S. Asmawati, A.M. Lukman and R. Samsilah, 2012. Perkembangan sekolah islam swasta dan sumbangannya kepada sistem pendidikan negar a. Paper Presentation at the 3rd International Conference on Islamic Education 2013 (ICIED 2013) on 6-7 April 2013 at Pusat Latihan Esset KWSP, Kajang, Selangor.
Fathiyah, M.F., H.A. Nor, H. Azimi and A.M. Lukman, 2013. Pemahaman dan pengalaman guru pendidikan islam menerapkan elemen amalan dalam pengajaran. Online Journal of Islamic Education, 1(1): 1-12.
Fathiyah, M.F. and S. Asmawati, 2014. Private islamic primary school teachers commitment in human capital development in Malaysia. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, MCSER Publishing, Rome-Italy, 5(27): 766-773.
Hanani, N., 2013. Guru Cemerlang pendidikan islam. Online Journal of Islamic Education, 1(2): 18-30.
Haskell, R.E., 2010. Transfer of learning, cognition, instuction and reasoning. UK: Academic Press.
Leech, G., 1993. Prinsip-prinsip pragmatik. (Ter. M.D.Oka). Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press.
Miles, M.B. and H.A. Michael, 1984. Qualitative data analysis; a sourcebook of new methods. Beverly Hill: Sage Publication Inc.
Mutalib, H., 2015. Melayu Singapura; sebagai kaum minoriti dan muslim dalam Sebuah Negeri global. Singapore: NUS Press.
Ridhuan, M.M.J., S. Shariza and I.Z.K. Mohd, 2014. Kompetensi guru terhadap pengurusan pengajaran dan pembelajaran: Suatu pendekatan teknik fuzzy delphi. Jurnal Kepimpinan Pendidikan, 1(3): 77-88.
Sanusi, H.P., 2013. The role of teachers PAI in the development of Nuance religious schools. Ta'lim Journal of Islamic Education, 11(2): 23-45.
(2017). Teaching-Learning Model of Islamic Education at Madrasah Based on Mosque in Singapore. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(3): 218-225. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1/2017.7.3/22.214.171.124
The purpose of this research is (1) to know the characteristic of method
in teaching-learning done by alumni of Middle East in Islamic
education, (2) To describe the use of traditional method in
teaching-learning done by alumni of Middle East, and (3) to describe the
reasons of the use of traditional method in teaching-learning in
Islamic education. This research was done using qualitative approach.
The data collection method is in-depth interview, observation, and
documentation. After doing the research, it can be summarized that the
teaching-learning model of Islamic education for students or the Muslim
community in Singapore are as follows: (1) Since the first Alumni
Middle East prefer to use traditional methods (lecture). (2) Singapore
classical scholars prefer to use traditional learning methods. (3) The
public (including the lesson more) prefer the traditional method of
lecture. (4) Singapore Islamic society prefers to acquire knowledge
through lectures.. (5) The traditional method is a way to provide more
knowledge than by using other methods. (6) The method of discourse is
more suitable than other methods of teaching Islamic education in
Singapore. (8) The typology of Singapore Islamic society prefer to hear
and understand the learning materials using the lecture method. (9) It
has been felt that the traditional methods of teaching Islamic education
is more precise than other methods. (10) Alumni of the Middle East are
reluctant to use other methods because of the experience gained during
the knowledge he learned in a lecture model.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated about the
condition of Islam and in particular Islamic education based on mosque
in Singapore. The results of this study contribute knowledge in the
form of information about Islamic education.
Human Resource Planning in an Unstable Economy: Challenges Faced. A Case of State Universities in Zimbabwe
Andersson, J., H. Avasalu and D. Gabrielson, 2002. Human resource planning. Thesis No. 2002: 18. Goteborg University. ElandersNovum.
Armstrong, 2010. Handbook of reward management practice: Improving performance through reward. Kogan Page Publishers.
Armstrong, M., 2011. A handbook of human resources practice. 11th Edn., London: Kogan Page.
Duane, M.J., 1996. Customised human resource planning. Westport: Quorum Books.
Eldridge, D., 1998. Reconceptualising human resource planning in response to institutional change. International Journal of Manpower, 19(5): 343-357.
Fapohunda, T.M., 2012. The global economic recession: Impact of strategies for human resource management in Nigeria. International Journal of Business Economics, 1(6): 7-12.
Hipple, S., 2010. The labour market in 2009. Recession drag on. Monthly Labour Review, 133(3): 3-22.
Kotecha, P., M. Wilson-Strydom and S. Fongwa, 2012. A profile of higher education in Southern Africa: National perspectives. Johannesburg: Southern African Regional Universities Association (SARUA), 2.
Mahapatro, B.B., 2010. Human resource management. 1st Edn., New Delhi: New Age Publishers.
Mapolisa, T., 2014. Effectiveness of staff retention strategies in Zimbabwe`s public and private universities: Returnee lecturers perspective. International Journal of Public Administration and Policy Research, 1(1): 8 20.
Miles, M. and M. Huberman, 1994. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded source book. London: Beverly Hills.
Mupemhi, S. and R. Mupemhi, 2011. Internal marketing strategies in state universities in Zimbabwe: A case of Midlands State university. International Journal of Management and Business Studies, 1(4): 38-41.
Ncube, S., 2002. Employment, unemployment and the evolution of labour policy in Zimbabwe. Zambezia Journal, 27(11): 165-193.
Pilbeam, S. and M. Corbridge, 2010. People resourcing and talent planning. Human resource in practice. 4th Edn., London: Prentice Hall.
Taylor, S., 1998. Employee resourcing. London: Institute of Personnel Development.
Taylor, S., 2009. Under the cover of recession, firms undercut diversity, despite a promising new coalition. Of Counsel, 28(7): 3-4.
The Zimbabwean Labour Act Cap 28:01, n.d. Harare, Zimbabwe: Government Printers.
Treasury State of the Economy Report, 2014. Retrieved From www.zimtreasury.gov.zw.
Workforce Connections Report: Zimbabwe Labour Market Assessment, 2014.
ZIMSTAT, 2014. Quarterly digest of statistics. 2nd quarter. Retrieved From www.zimstat.co.zw.
Zinyemba, A., Z., 2014. Challenges of recruitment and selection of employees in Zimbabwean companies. Journal of Science and Research, 3(1): 29-33.
No any video found for this article.
(2017). Human Resource Planning in an Unstable Economy: Challenges Faced. A Case of State Universities in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(3): 206-217. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1/2017.7.3/126.96.36.199
In light of the economic environment prevailing in Zimbabwe, the study
sought to explore the challenges posed by economic instability and the
effect on human resource planning in state universities. The study was
guided by the systems approach for human resource planning. Qualitative
approach was used with a case study design. Purposive and convenient
sampling was used to draw participants from the university. Data was
collected using semi -structured interviews, closed and open-ended
questionnaires as well as documentary analysis. Narrative format was
used for data presentation while thematic analysis was used to analyse
data. The study found out that HRP in state universities has been
hampered by the country`s unstable economy as the deteriorating economic
environment has caused reduced government revenue collection, high
unemployment levels, financial illiquidity, low and costly business
operation environment, high country debt compared to national income and
financial budget cuts. This affected HRP as shown by salary and full
time employment freeze, high brain drain, labour mobility, delayed
salaries, low availed funds for staff development programmes, tenure,
contact and sabbatical leave, high vacancy rates and low government
financial support. The study concluded that HRP is complex in an
unstable economy as most HRP strategies and decisions require financial
resources. The study recommended state universities to review and
integrate human resource planning policies to suit the unstable economy
prevailing in the country. This can be done through merging University
departments, engaging in part-time employment and outsourcing of
non-core University functions.
This study contributes to the existing literature focusing on HRP. It
seeks to widen knowledge on the challenges to HRP in an unstable
economy. Several studies on challenges faced in HRP have been pronounced
in academic literature. However this study places much emphasis on
challenges faced in an unstable economic environment.
An Analysis of the Green Product Attributes that Entice Green Purchasing- A Study Done in Bangalore City
Bearse, S., P. Capozucca, L. Favret and B. Lynch, 2009. Finding the green in todays shoppers: Sustainability trends and new shopper insights. GMA/Deloitte Green Shopper Study Research Report. pp: 1-28.
Braimah, M. and E.Y. Tweneboah-Koduah, 2011. An exploratory study of the impact of green brand awareness on consumer purchase decisions in Ghana. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 5(7): 11-18.
Dolan, E., N. McKeon and S. Mellon, 2015. Easy being green? The effects of environmental marketing on millennials consumer behavior, Skidmore College Environmental Studies Department: 1-39. Available from https://www.skidmore.edu/wri/documents/1-DolanMcKeonMellon.docx.
Junaid, A.B., R. Nasreen and F. Ahmed, 2013. A study on the purchase behavior and cosmetic consumption pattern among young females in Delhi and NCR. Journal of Social and Development Sciences, 4(5): 205-211.
Lin, Y.C. and C.C.A. Chang, 2012. Double standard: The role of environmental consciousness in green product usage. Journal of Marketing, 76(5): 125-134.
Maheshwari, A. and G. Malhotra, 2011. Green marketing: A study on Indian youth. International Journal of Management and Strategy, 2(3): 1-15.
Michaud, C. and D. Llerena, 2011. Green consumer behaviour: An experimental analysis of willingness to pay for remanufactured products. Business Strategy and the Environment, 20(6): 408-420.
Mitra, D., 2014. A comparative study on green marketing effectiveness: A data envelopment approach. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Global Business, Economics, Finance and Social Sciences, Chennai.
Ottman, A., 2012. What green consumer polls should really be asking. Huffington Post. Available from http://www.greenmarketing.com/articles/complete/next-generation-green-marketing-beyond-bill-/ [Accessed May 3, 2012].
Prakash, A., 2002. Green marketing, public policy and managerial strategies. Business Strategy and the Environment, 11(5): 285-297.
Rumi, N.L., S. Sayem, A. Al Morshed, M. Hasan, D.K. Somadder and S. Ahmed, 2014. Green consumption behavior, department of business administration, Shahjalal University of Science and Technology, Syhlet, Bangladesh: 1-54. Available from http://www.academia.edu/8413233/Consumers_Purchasing_Behaviour_towards_Green_Product.
Shetty, B.R. and R. Gujarathi, 2013. The viability of sustainable lifestyle within Indian context. International Journal of Management Research and Reviews, 3(9): 3614-3623.
Singh, S.D., 2011. A study of consumer behavior of elderly consumers with special reference to green products. International Journal of Management and Information Systems, 15(4): 101-104.
Times, L.A., 2012. Eco-friendly packaging influences shopping decisions. Available from http://www.prsresearch.com/about-prs/announcements/article/eco-friendly-packaging-influences-shopping-decisions/.
Vernekar, S.S. and P. Wadhwa, 2011. Green consumption an empirical study of consumers attitudes and perception regarding eco-friendly FMCG products, with special reference to Delhi and NCR Region. Opinion, 1(1): 64-74.
(2017). An Analysis of the Green Product Attributes that Entice Green Purchasing- A Study Done in Bangalore City. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(3): 199-205. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1/2017.7.3/188.8.131.52
Attributes related to green products plays a vital role in attracting the customers. It will also help the customers to differentiate it from the conventional products. The present study aimed to find out the factors that lead the customers to identify a product as green, what is the image they have about the green product, what category of green products they usually purchase and how they give weightage to conventional product and green product based on certain factors. A total 1061 samples were employed for the study through stratified random sampling. Statistical tools like mean score and correlation analysis were used. The survey found out that people consider recyclable symbol as an important criteria while looking into a green product. It was observed that people go for different category of green products based on the frequency of exposure they get for that particular product. Respondents feel that green products create less harm to the environment when compare to conventional products.
This study is one of the few studies conducted in India which dealt with the perception of consumers towards green products and conventional products by applying the concept of gap analysis. This study can provide a better insight to the marketers about how consumers perceive each factor under green and conventional product.
The Use of Ceramic Product Derived from Non-Ḥalal Animal Bone: Is it Permissible from the Perspective of Islamic Law?
JAKIM, 2013. Ruling on the use of animal bone ashes (Bone China) in the production of household goods and ornaments. The collection of Fatwa in Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Percetakan Siaran.
Jamaludin, M.A., 2009. Teori istiḥālah menurut perspektif islam dan sains: Aplikasi terhadap beberapa penghasilan produk makanan. Tesis Sarjana. Kuala Lumpur: Akademi Pengajian Islam Universiti Malaya.
Jamaludin, M.A., M.A. Ramli, D. Mat Hashim and S. Ab Rahman, 2013. Fiqh istihalah: Integration of science and islamic law. Revelation and Science, 2(2): 117-123.
Kamali, M.H., 2013. The parameters of halal and haram in shariah and the halal industry. London: The International Institute of Islamic Thought.
Ko, D.C., 2000. Optimised correlations for the fixed-bed adsorption of metal ions on bone char. Chemical Engineering Science, 55(23): 5819-5829.
Korir, H., K. Mueller, L. Korir, J. Kubai, E. Wanja, N. Wanjiku and R. Shaw, 2009. The development of bone char-based filters for the removal of fluoride from drinking water. 34th WEDC International Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Medellin-Castillo, N.A., 2007. Adsorption of fluoride from water solution on bone char. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 46(26): 9205-9212.
Mohammad, A.J. and C.W.W.M.R. Jasimah, 2009. Teori istiḥālah menurut perspektif fiqh dan sains: Aplikasi terhadap beberapa penghasilan produk makanan. Jurnal Syariah, 17(1): 169-193.
Osborne, H., 1975. The oxford companion to the decorative arts. London: Clarendon Press.
Ozgundogdu, F.C., 2005. Bone China from Turkey. Ceramics Technical, 20(4): 29-32.
Peterson, S.H., 2003. The craft and art of clay. A Complete Potters Handbook: Laurence King Publishing.
The British Pottery Manufacturers Federation, 1994. Bone China. Dictionary of ceramics. Ed: D. Arthur & M. David. London: The Institute of Minerals.
Thompson, R., 1980. Production of bone china. U.S. Patent No. 4,219,360. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Zakaria, Z. and H. Haron, 2013. Characterisation of local bone ash for bone China production. Jurnal Teknologi, 66(1): 25-24.
No any video found for this article.
(2017). The Use of Ceramic Product Derived from Non-Ḥalal Animal Bone: Is it Permissible from the Perspective of Islamic Law?. International Journal of Asian Social Science, 7(3): 192-198. DOI: 10.18488/journal.1/2017.7.3/184.108.40.206
A ceramic product derived from the bones of non-halal animal has become an issue for Muslims in terms of its status whether it is halal or haram. The status can be determined by scrutinizing the transformation process or namely as istiḥālah either a complete change (istiḥālah kāmilah) or an incomplete change (istiḥālah ghayr kāmilah). This research used the qualitative research method via the approach of document analysis to examine various opinions of classical and current Islamic jurists on the status of using ceramic products derived from the bones of non halal animal according to the Islamic law. The research discovers an alternative method of processing ceramic products from animal bones through istiḥālah. It is a transformation of filthy or haram materials into other materials which includes physical appearance and its properties such as odor, taste and color.
This study is one of the very few studies which investigated the non-ḥalāl animal bone which has been used in ceramic products from the Sharīah perspective. The papers primary contribution is finding that established istiḥālah; a principle of transformation of filthy or haram materials into other materials, can be applied as a legal method in determining the halal or haram status of a ceramic product.