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(2017). The Use of Metacognitive Strategies by ESL Tertiary Learners in Learning IELTS Listening Course. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 6(1): 11-24. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23.2017.61.11.24
Listening, in general, is a challenging language skill for many learners
in which they usually face frustration (Arnold, 2000; Goh, 2000). The
emphasis of this study is to identify the experiences of ESL learners
when learning the listening skill for IELTS while applying metacognitive
strategies in learning. The research instrument used in the present
study is the semi-structured interviews with the aim of gaining
foundational understanding from the selected respondents regarding their
use of metacognitive strategies in learning the listening skills for
the IELTS examination. The qualitative results of this study were based
on interviews conducted among 10 participants who are undergraduate
students, underwent an intervention programme which was designed for
them to acquire the listening skills using the metacognitive strategies.
The semi-structured interviews were recorded and transcribed for
analysis by using the coding method. Findings of this study suggest that
metacognitive strategies presents a viable solution for acquiring
appropriate skills in the listening component because although most
individuals of normal intelligence engage in metacognitive regulation
when confronted with an effortful cognitive task, some are more
metacognitive than others. Those with greater metacognitive abilities
tend to be more successful in their cognitive endeavours. Additionally,
it was also found to have positively impacted learning behaviours with
the learners being receptive to the changes and gaining more confidence
with independently learning. There is a vast potential that can still be
evaluated for the application of metacognitive strategies with other
level of learners for acquiring appropriate listening skills in the
Marlows Dilemma and Ours; Conrad and Africas Development Agenda: A Reading of Heart of Darkness
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(2017). Marlows Dilemma and Ours; Conrad and Africas Development Agenda: A Reading of Heart of Darkness. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 6(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2017.6.1/126.96.36.199
Consciously or unconsciously Heart of Darkness is a statement on the
(our) difficulty of negotiating development and moral sanity. Marlow?s
quest to understand Kurtz?s ventures and remedy him lead rather to the
blank realization that the man torn apart by violent verbiage is himself
a victim of the quest for development in an environment that seemingly
needed domestication. More than a hundred years after its publication,
the ripple effect of Heart of Darkness are insistent, the more so
because its producer?s virile imagination finds adequate space in our
modern political andeconomic consciousness. In spite of the numerous
criticisms levelled against Kurtz, he remains the quintessence of a
legitimate capitalist search for self-aggrandizement. In this regard,
the paper questions and investigates the impact of the exploitation of
Africa?s natural resources on the physical and social environment.
Additionally, it attempts to understand the extent to which this may
exacerbate our moral outrage. In the light of this, the paper locates
Kurtz?s, Marlow?s and the reader?s anguish in their difficulty to
resolve both the cultural and economical moral stigmas that come with
progress. Therefore, this paper argues that Kurtz, Marlow and the reader
are all drawn into a moral battle with themselves because of their
inability to reconcile the necessity for development and the urgency of
preserving the physical and moral environment that makes this possible.
This study contributes in the existing literature on Conrad’s Heart of Darkness and especially on the symbolic relevance of Kurtz and Marlow and the readers.