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Suhair Al Alami (2016). Literature in the EFL Classroom: Points to Ponder. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2): 144-153. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/126.96.36.199
In a highly demanding world, learners are expected to embrace the four
Cs: collaboration, communication, creativity, and critical thinking.
Best practices in the current century’s education, therefore, require
tools that hone life skills, facilitate student engagement, and build
upon solid research whilst supporting higher-level thinking. With the
four Cs in mind, the current article seeks to emphasize the significant
impact literature can have within English as a foreign language (EFL)
contexts. Speaking in general terms, there are three major benefits a
literature-based program enjoys. These are: enhancing students’ scope of
literature comprehension for aesthetic appreciation purpose,
highlighting a wide range of the ideals discussed in great works, and
developing different aspects of foreign language acquisition.
Emphasizing literature-related experiences is, thus, essential for the
twenty-first century education. Section Two highlights a number of
reasons for utilizing literature within EFL contexts. Section Three
discusses several studies conducted in the EFL classroom. Section Four
portrays some activities and strategies that can be used to emphasize
quality teaching of literary passages. Section Five proceeds to present
the criteria the author has proposed for selecting literary texts within
EFL contexts. Lastly, Section Six concludes with some recommendations
for EFL specialists to consider.
This paper focuses on a contemporary issue of interest to EFL instructors and researchers. The subject matter of the paper is critical to the field of teaching literature within EFL contexts, in particular. The paper documents relevant studies, and concludes with some recommendations for specialists to take into consideration.
The Impact of Using Mobile Technology on Developing EFL Learners? Writing Skill
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Abdollah Baradaran --- Malihe Akhavan Kharaziyan (2016). The Impact of Using Mobile Technology on Developing EFL Learners? Writing Skill. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2): 135-143. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/188.8.131.52
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether using mobile technology had any impact on developing Iranian EFL learners’ writing skill. Moreover, the study intended to find out the type of contribution clues mobile technology could provide in improving the students writing. Two classes of 20 female students were chosen. A Nelson test administered at the beginning of the study showed that the two groups were homogenous in terms of their language proficiency. The design of the study was quasi-experimental. Both experimental and control groups were taught writing using the traditional method, however, the students in the experimental group submitted their assignments through mobile applications (Email or Blog or WhatsApp). They also used mobile for recording, sending, and receiving the writing skill materials. After the treatment, on the 12th session, the two groups were given a post-test of writing in order to measure the improvement of each group. Finally the scores were collected. The result of data analysis demonstrated that using mobile technology had a significant impact on improving learners’ writing skill.
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of using mobile technology on the development of EFL learners’ writing skill. The paper's essential contribution is its finding that utilizing mobile technology has a significant impact on ameliorating students’ writing skill.
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Zhang Qiang (2016). Addies Inner Torment and Struggle in William Faulkners As I Lay Dying. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2): 128-134. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/184.108.40.206
As I Lay Dying is one of the greatest classics written by American novelist William Faulkner. In this novel, Faulkner created a female character Addie, who had suffered a lot in her whole life. Addie?s inner heart was full of torment and she got a complicated personality, which is the root of her tragic life. This paper analyzes the causes of Addie?s torment in her inner heart from three aspects: her solitary character, her rational and emotional conflicts and her intertwined love and hatred. The paper also expounds the heroine?s relationship with her husband, her children and other people, revealing the personality conflict between them, which is a concrete form of Addie?s suffering. At the end of this paper, the author gives a brief account on Addie?s Struggle to illustrate Faulkner?s expectation and real praise of American women.
A Comparative Study on Passive Vocabulary Growth Through Rote Learning and Multiple Exposures among Iranian EFL Learners
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(2016). A Comparative Study on Passive Vocabulary Growth Through Rote Learning and Multiple Exposures among Iranian EFL Learners. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2): 118-127. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/220.127.116.11
Despite the historical prevalence of rote memorization as a way of vocabulary learning, it has been under severe critics in recent decades. However, some researchers found a positive attitude toward it among English learners as a foreign language (EFL). New trend of vocabulary learning strategies are focused on contextualization, one of which is multiple exposures technique. After all, this question remains as to whether EFL learners should dismiss rote learning thoroughly? This research aimed to have a comparison on the effectiveness of rote learning and multiple exposures in passive vocabulary growth i.e. retention of the first language (L1) equivalents of English words. Nineteen participants both male and female with associate degree in different disciplines who had a considerably low level of English language proficiency were selected and instructed a list of 26 single words, half of them with rote learning, and rest with multiple exposures. It was concluded that passive vocabulary growth (recalling the meaning of words in first language) is significantly higher for the list of words which was instructed through rote learning. Participants? low level of English proficiency and their cultural tendency may account for superiority of rote learning on multiple exposures in this specific condition. This implies that teachers and learners of EFL can take the advantage of rote learning when learners? English proficiency level is low and the purpose of vocabulary learning is merely word recognition and its translation in L1, as well as they should not be deluded by any imprecise claims about the significance of multiple exposures.
This study reveals that despite severe criticisms against traditional rote learning, it still have its own advantages in certain vocabulary learning situations compared with multiple exposures.
Effect of Digital Reading on Comprehension of English Prose Texts in EFL/ESL Contexts
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Shirin Shafiei Ebrahimi (2016). Effect of Digital Reading on Comprehension of English Prose Texts in EFL/ESL Contexts. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2): 111-117. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/18.104.22.168
This study examines the effect of digital reading on reading comprehension of English short prose texts of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English as a Second Language (ESL) college students. 60 ESL participants with 30 students in the experimental group and 30 students in the control group plus 60 EFL participants with 30 students in the experimental group and 30 students in the control group participated in this study. They were asked to read 10 short literary prose texts to check their reading comprehension. The findings revealed the experimental group which used two methods of print and digital reading had a significantly better reading comprehension on print reading. To triangulate the findings, the qualitative interviews from the respondents confirms the findings from the statistical results. Therefore, integrating digital reading program to literature programs helps students to improve reading comprehension. The conclusion can show that this study adds to our understanding of the effectiveness of print reading on literary reading comprehension.
The study uses the modern technology in reading literary prose texts by EFL and ESL students. It compares how their achievements in reading comprehension are different with each other with or without using digital screen in reading. The results show that using digital reading is significantly more effective in reading.
An Analysis of the English Language Needs of Medical Students and General Practitioners: A Case Study of Guilan University of Medical Sciences
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Fereidoon Vahdany --- Leila Gerivani (2016). An Analysis of the English Language Needs of Medical Students and General Practitioners: A Case Study of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2): 104-110. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/22.214.171.124
This study aimed at finding out the English language needs of Medical students and General Practitioners in an EFL context. 110 female and male students from Guilan University of Medical Sciences, who had already taken General English and English for Medical purposes courses, 40 General Practitioners who graduated from Guilan University and they work in different hospitals in Rasht city currently, and among 3 EFL instructors and 12 Subject-matter instructors participated in this study. The findings of the study showed that both medical students and General Practitioners valued reading skill, higher than the other language skills followed by writing skill. However, speaking skill had the least significance for both groups. And also General practitioners reflected higher needs towards English language than medical students. According to the fact that actual needs of medicine students generally change across time and educational settings, the EMP instructor should try to find the real needs of the learners and assess the effectiveness of his/her course based on the investigation of changing needs of the students.
The paper`s primary contribution is finding that both Medical students and General Practitioners valued reading skill, higher than the other language skills followed by writing skill. However, speaking skill had the least significance for both groups. And also General Practitioners reflected higher needs towards English language than Medical students.
The Effect of Affection on English Language Learning of Children with Intellectual Disability Based on Total Physical Response Method of Language Teaching
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Amir Mohammadian --- Shima Mohammadian Dolatabadi (2016). The Effect of Affection on English Language Learning of Children with Intellectual Disability Based on Total Physical Response Method of Language Teaching. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2): 92-103. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/126.96.36.199
Teaching English as a foreign language to mentally retarded persons is much more complicated than normal EFL learners, and it requires specific techniques and methods. Giving affection by the teacher is assumed to be an effective way to overcome limitations caused by intellectual disability. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of teaching with affection on English learning of children with intellectual disability. The participants in this study are 18 males and females with mild retardation between 6 to 14 years old. Before the random division of the two groups and conducting the pre-test, the Goodenough Psychological Test was conducted to evaluate the mental age of the participants. Also the standard Test of Language Development (TOLD) was used for assessing their native language development. The results of these two tests showed that all of them were mildly disabled and their native language development was the same, then they were randomly divided in two groups. After the pretest and checking the homogeneity of the control and the experimental groups, there was a treatment. The treatment comprised in teaching a list of 13 English imperative forms. The words in the target sentences were chosen based on the TPR method of language teaching, however only the experimental group were exposed to affection. After analyzing the data it was proved that giving affection to mentally retarded learners of English language in the age of Childhood (up to 14 years) triples the outcome of the instruction. This indicates not only the feasibility of learning a foreign language to them, but also the importance of teacher?s positive behavior during the instruction.
This study is one of very few studies that investigate an effective way for teaching a foreign language to children with intellectual disability. It uses new estimation methodology that giving extra affection to children with intellectual disability can be used to facilitate learning a foreign language.
The Correlation Between Creativity in Male and Female Iranian EFL Learners and Guessing Through Etymology
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Hassan Soleimani --- Hadiseh Fallahpour (2016). The Correlation Between Creativity in Male and Female Iranian EFL Learners and Guessing Through Etymology. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 5(2): 84-91. DOI: 10.18488/journal.23/2016.5.2/188.8.131.52
The main purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was any significant correlation between high and low levels of creativity in male and female Iranian EFL learners and guessing the meaning of unknown words by using etymology. To this aim, 161 Iranian EFL intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of this study, and were asked to respond to the creativity questionnaire in order to determine the creativity levels of them. Consequently, 68 participants whose scores were between 50 to 75 (low creativity) and 85 to 100 (high creativity) were selected for the purpose of this study. In order to know whether the participants were familiar with the meaning of words or not, a vocabulary test was administered to them. Finally, the participants were given an etymology test constructed by the researchers in order to check the guessing power of the participants by using their etymology knowledge. Applying non-parametric Pearson correlation, the results revealed that the high and low levels of Iranian EFL learners? creativity and guessing the meaning of unknown words by etymology were correlated. The results have implications for language teachers and materials developers.