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Asian Economic and Financial Review
Publish by: Production and Hosting by Pak Publishing Group on behalf of Asian Economic and Social Socie
Online ISSN: 2222-6737
Print ISSN: 2305-2147
Online ISSN: 2222-6737
Print ISSN: 2305-2147
Print ISSN: 2305-2147
Total Citation: 1219
Effects of Sms on Writing Skills of the University Students in Pakistan (A Case Study of University of Gujrat)
Zahid Yousaf, Mehmood Ahmed
The current study is intended to discover the effect of the SMS using habits on writing skills of the university students of Pakistan and to show how this novel medium of communication is affecting the writing skills of the university students. Survey research is used to collect data in quantitative form using multiphase method of sampling. Time period of the study was from October 2010 to December 2010. It is found that the higher the exposure to the SMS, more the negative effect on the writing skills of the university students. The excessive use of this medium is leading students towards writing wrong spellings and using SMS language???s short abbreviations that are not standard in examinations and daily academic work that is very harmful in academia.
- Crystal, D., 2008. Txtng: The gr8 deb8. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- MoF, 2008. Economic survey of pakistan 2005-06. Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan.
- PTA, 2010. Annual report 2009, 2010. Pakistan Telecommunications Authority, Islamabad, Pakistan.
- Rafi, M., 2010. Sms text analysis: Language. Gender and Current Practices. Available from http://www.tesolfrance.org/Documents/Colloque07/SMS%20Text%20Analysis%20Language%20Gender%20and%20Current%20Practice%20_1_.pdf
Financial Challenges Faced by Retail Smes Operating in a Multi- Currency Environment. A Case of Gweru Urban, Zimbabwe
The study sought to find out financial challenges encountered by retail SMEs operating in a multi-currency environment with particular reference to Gweru Urban in Zimbabwe. The replacement of the Zimbabwean dollar by foreign currencies gave birth to a multi-currency environment. The adoption of multi-currencies was necessitated by the need to curb inflationary pressures which characterized the economy up to April 2009.Convenience sampling was used to select 150 retail SMEs. The data were collected using questionnaires. The questionnaires were filled either by the owners of the SMEs or their managers. The study established that retail SMEs were facing several financial challenges in a multi- currency environment. The challenges included shortage of liquidity in the economy which resulted in low sales due to depressed consumer demand. In turn low sales negatively affected the profitability of the SMEs. High interest rates constrained the ability of SMEs to raise finance through bank loans and overdrafts. The use of personal savings and retained profits as sources of finance implies that SMEs could only raise limited amounts of capital. The financial position of the SMEs was also worsened by high operating expenses and lack of trade credit. In light of these financial challenges the study recommends that the Zimbabwean government should adopt a long-term policy on the use of the foreign currency. It is also imperative that the government of Zimbabwe swallows its pride and officially makes arrangements with South Africa or the United States of America in order to have an increased supply of the rand or US dollar. The SMEs should also devise survival strategies such as formation of strategic alliances and voluntary chains.
- Bhattacharya, H., 2001. Working capital management: Strategies and techniques. New Delhi Prentice Hall.
- Eneh, O.C., 2010. Survival strategies for entrepreneurs in dwindling nigerian economy. Asian J. Industrial, 2: 52-62.
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- Longnecker, J., G 2006. Small business management, . New York: Thompson South –Western.
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Policies and Effectiveness of Foreign Aid: The Case of Sri Lanka
This empirical study investigates foreign aid???s effectiveness in stimulating growth by considering economic policies and the factors that influenced aid flow in Sri Lanka during the period of 1980-2008. For both analyses, a single-equation instrumental variable estimation method is employed. The results derived from this study suggest that aid is positively associated with growth in a good policy environment in Sri Lanka. Regarding determinants, in terms of trade openness and budget deficits the results suggest that aid was transferred into Sri Lanka under a conditional policy environment. Inflation is positively associated with aid flow. Unrest in the country and per capita growth negatively influenced aid, whereas commercial interests, natural disasters, political stability, and poverty are positively associated with aid inflow.
- Arellano, C., A. Bulir, T. Lane and L. Lipschitz, 2009. The dynamic implications of foreign aid and its variability. Journal of Development Economics, 88: 87-102.
- Asteriou, D., 2009. Foreign aid and economic growth: New evidence from a panel data approach for five south asian countries. Journal of Policy Modelling, 31: 155-161.
- Burnside, C. and D. Dollar, 2000. Aid, policies, and growth. The American Economic Review, 90(4): 847- 868.
- Chauvet, L., 2003. Socio-political instability and the allocation of international aid by donors. European Journal of Political Economy, 19(1): 33-59.
- Dalgaard, C.J. and H. Hansen, 2001. On aid, growth and good policies. The Journal of Development Studies, 37(6): 17-41.
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- Eaterly, W., R. Levine and D. Roodman, 2004. Aid, policies and growth: Comment. American economic review, 94(3): 774-780.
- Gong, L. and C. Xiaoyong, 2008. Foreign aid, domestic capital accumulation, and foreign borrowing. Journal of Macroeconomics, 30(3): 1269-1284.
- Gounder, R., 2001. Aid-growth nexus: Empirical evidence from fiji. Applied Economics, 8(8): 1009-1019.
- Hansen, H. and F. Tarp, 2000. Aid effectiveness disputed. Journal of International Development, 12(3): 375-398.
- Islam, A., 1992. Foreign aid and economic growth: An econometric study for bangladesh. Applied Economics, 24(5): 541-544.
- Jayasuriya, S., P. Steele, D. Weerakoon, M. Knight-John and N. Arunatilake, 2005. Post-tsunami recovery: Issues and challenges in sri lanka. The institute of policy studies (ips) of sri lanka and the asian development bank institute (adbi), tokyo, japan in collaboration with the asian economics centre, university of melbone, australia.
- Mavrotas, G., 2005. Aid heterogeneity: Looking at aid effectiveness from a different angle. Journal of International Development, 17(8): 1019-1036.
- Mbaku, J.M., 1993. Foreign aid and economic growth in cameroon. Applied Economics, 25(10): 1309-1314.
- McGillivray, M., 2009. Aid, economic reform, and public sector fiscal behaviour in developing countries. Review of Development Economics, 13(3): 526-542.
- McGillivray, M. and B. Ouattara, 2005. Aid, debt burden and government fiscal behaviour in cote d’ivoire. Journal of African Economies, 14(2): 247-269.
- McGillivray, M., S. , N. Feeny, Hermes. and R. Lensink, 2006. Controversies over the impact of development aid: It works; it doesn’t; it can, but that depends. Journal of International Development, 18(7): 1031-1050.
- Minoiu, C. and S.G. Reddy, 2010. Development aid and economic growth: A positive long-run relation. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 50(2): 27-39.
- Morrissey, O., O. Iseli and D. Manja, 2006. Aid loans versus aid grant: Are the effects different? CREDIT Research Paper, No.06/07, University of Nottingham.
- Neanidis, C.K. and D. Varvarigos, 2009. The allocation of volatile aid and economic growth: Theory and evidence. European Journal of Political Economy, 25(3): 447-462.
- Ouattara, B., 2006. Foreign aid and government fiscal behaviour in developing countries: Panel data evidence. Economic Modeling, 23(3): 506-514.
- Paudel, C.R. and N. Perera, 2009. Foreign debt, trade openness, labor force and economic growth: Evidence from sri lanka. Journal of Applied Economics, 8(1): 57-64.
- Rajan, G.R. and A. Subramanian, 2005. Aid and growth: What does the cross-country evidence really show? NBER working paper No.11513.
- Rajan, G.R. and A. Subramanian, 2005. What undermines aid’s impact on growth? IMF working paper WP/05/126.
- Round, I.J. and M. Odedokun, 2004. Aid effort and its determinants. International Review of Economic & Finance, 13(3): 293-309.
- Selaya, P. and E.R. Sunesen, 2008. Does foreign aid increase foreign direct investment? . Discussion Paper No.08-04, University of Copenhagen.
- Tan, K.Y., 2009. A pooled mean group analysis on aid and growth. Applied Economics Letters, 16(16): 1597-1601.
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Empirical Analysis of Teachers’ Gender and Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance
Odunaike K. O., Ijaduola K. O., Amoda M.B.
This study analysed teachers??? gender and the academic performance in Business Education subjects among secondary school students in Ijebu-ode, Ogun state, Nigeria. 8 (eight) senior secondary schools were randomly selected from the 13(thirteen) secondary schools in the township. 40(forty) professionally qualified classroom teachers (20 males and 20 females) were purposely selected for the study. Teachers??? Gender and Secondary School Students??? Academic Performance Questionnaire (TGSSSAPQ) which was developed by the researchers was the main instrument used to collect data. The research instrument recorded a reliability coefficient of 0.95 having been treated to Kudder Richardson (KR2) formular. The only hypothesis in the study was tested using the chi-square statistics at 0.05 error margin. Two research questions were answered as well using the descriptive statistics (simple percentage). The study found that female teachers put extra effort in ensuring high standard of performance by students than their male counterparts who perceive teaching as a profession for the weaker sex (females). The study recommended, inter alia, that students should not base their academic achievements on their teachers??? gender while the government should encourage people, irrespective of gender, to go into teaching profession through proper remuneration.
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The Effect of Interest Rate, Inflation Rate, GDP, on Real Economic Growth Rate in Jordan
Abdul Aziz Farid Saymeh, Marwan Mohammad Abu Orabi
The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of interest rate, inflation rate, and GDP on real economic growth in Jordan over the period 2000-2010. Unit root test (Augmented Dickey-Fuller test) has been exploited to check the integration order of the variables. Acointegration analysis with four variables (economic growth, interest rate, GDP, and inflation level) is employed. Study adopted Johansen test. Findings indicated that both trace test and max eigenvalue static showed that the four equations have significant existent 1% or 5%. It means that all variables have long term equilibrium relationship. Study adopted the same four variables to discuss Granger Causality relationship; findings indicated that inflation causes interest rate. On the other hand all other variables are independent with each other. Regressionwas conducted to test growth rate with interest rate which showed that current interest rate has an influence power on growth rate. Also, regression used to test growth rate with inflation rate; it showed that inflation rate has influence power on growth rate. Finally regression used to test GDP, interest rate, and inflation rate together; results have shown that current GDP and one lag GDP have influence power to growth rate.
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Seasonal Arima Modelling of Nigerian Monthly Crude Oil Prices
Ette Harrison Etuk
The time plot of the series NCOP reveals a peak in 2008 and a depression in early 2009. The overall trend is horizontal and no seasonality is obvious. Twelve-month differencing yields SDNCOP exhibiting still a peak in 2008 and a trough in 2009, the overall trend being slightly positive and seasonality not easily discernible. Nonseasonal differencing of SDNCOP yields DSDNCOP with an overall horizontal trend and no obvious seasonality. However its correlogram reveals an autocorrelation structure of a seasonal model of order 12. Moreover it suggests the product of two moving average components both of order one, one non-seasonal and the other 12-month seasonal. The partial autocorrelation function suggests the involvement of a seasonal (i.e. 12-month) autoregressive component of order one. A (0, 1, 1)x(1, 1, 1)12 autoregressive integrated moving average model was therefore proposed and fitted. It has been shown to be adequate.
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Determination of the Impact of Working Capital Management on Profitability: An Empirical Study from the Cement Sector in Pakistan
Mobeen Ur Rehman, Naveed Anjum
This paper examines the impact that the running assets management on the profitability of Pakistan cement sector. Moreover, the study outlines the main factors that basically determine the working capital in the financials of Pakistan cement sector. To manage firm??? sliquid assets which is working capital management and to reach a desire equilibrium level among profitability and risk, figures was collected from Annual Reports and sample consist of 10 Pakistani cement Companies listed at KSE from 2003-2008. The association between working capital management and profitability is examined with correlation; regression analysis the result proved that there is inverse and positive association between working capital management and profitability in cement industry of Pakistan.
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The Testing of Hall’s Permanent Income Hypothesis: A Case Study of Iran
Gudarzi farahani Yazdan, Merabirad sina
The objective of this study is to test the Hall???s permanent income hypothesis for Iran using cointegration and error correction model from annual data covering the period of 1980-2010 using annual data from 1980 to 2010. The basic model of permanent income hypothesis showed the validity of absolute income hypothesis while the Campbell and Mankiw (1990) consumption model suggested that the proportion of forward looking consumers in total population is 34 percent and the remaining consumers are backward looking. Therefore in Iran, there is larger fluctuation in per capita income and small opportunity for consumption smoothing.
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Optimal Concentration and R&D Policies under Dual Government Goals
Daw Ma, Jiunn-Rong Chiou
The present study examines the optimal concentration and R&D subsidy/taxation policies under the dual government goals of maximizing current welfare and achieving technological superiority internationally (national champions) in an oligopolistic trading market. We find that, in order to maximize the domestic welfare, the optimal number of firms in the industry should increase in accordance with the increases in the R&D subsidies. If there are multiple firms in the domestic market, the optimal R&D policy should involve the imposition of an R&D tax and such taxation should increase as the number of firms increases. For the government to achieve its goal of seeking technological superiority, the optimal policy mix will be to increase the domestic concentration and reduce the R&D tax. When the importance of being technological superior to the government exceeds a certain level, the optimal R&D strategy will be to shift from an R&D tax to an R&D subsidy.
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Personality Type of Investors and Perception of Financial Information to Make Decisions
Mahsa Parsaeemehr, Farzin Rezeai, Darshana Sedera
In this paper, it is going to understand behavior of investors of the capital market in Iran and their perceptions about financial information, which cause them to make decision to buy or sell stocks. The research was done according to 16 types of Myers-Briggs Type indicators and 4 Keirsey temperaments on direct junior investors at Tehran stock exchange forums. Financial information of four active companies includes two bad and two good companies was presented to them for making decision about selling or buying stocks after knowing each one personality. Briefly, it was clarified that investors clustered in the ???Guardian??? temperament, that significant differences were seen in their perception of financial information according to their characters and types. The Dividend per Share, Earning per Share and Return on Investment played main role in configuring investors??? decision. Guardian investors have a mental pattern about importance of financial information. Guardian???s characters have different attitude to financial information, which was significant in the inventory turnover and company???s budget.
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