Journal of Challenges

Published by: PAK Publishing Group
Online ISSN: 2410-6569
Print ISSN: 2412-3471
Total Citation: 1

No. 2

Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?

Pages: 43-57
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Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.2/85.2.43.57

Citation: 1

Robert Spousta , Steve Chan

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(2015). Milk or Wine: Are Critical Infrastructure Protection Architectures Improving with Age?. Journal of Challenges, 2(2): 43-57. DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.2/85.2.43.57
This paper contextualizes the nature of threats to critical infrastructure, especially vulnerabilities within electric grid systems, and analyzes key considerations for the protection architecture of such systems. By exploring historical case studies, we demonstrate the potential for blind spots in infrastructure protection policy, which can leave electric grids vulnerable to a variety of threats, including improvisational malignant devices. These devices in turn have the potential to catalyze cascading failure scenarios within interdependent critical infrastructure systems, constituting “wicked problems” of complexity that bear relevance to a variety of public and private institutions responsible for the provision of essential services.

Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on critical infrastructure systems by investigating the brittleness of such systems from a novel conceptual perspective and applying previously unexplored historical parallels.

Climate Change Adaptation in Semi-Arid Dodoma: An Experience from Eco-Village

Pages: 30-42
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Climate Change Adaptation in Semi-Arid Dodoma: An Experience from Eco-Village

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.2/85.2.30.42

Kalumanga Venance Ephrahim , Bwagalilo Fadhili

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(2015). Climate Change Adaptation in Semi-Arid Dodoma: An Experience from Eco-Village. Journal of Challenges, 2(2): 30-42. DOI: 10.18488/journal.85/2015.2.2/85.2.30.42
Climate change has manifested to largely affect the most vulnerable areas in developing countries. Semi-Arid areas are among the most vulnerable. To lessen the impact, different areas are trying to adapt to the changing climate. The adaptation is, however, relative to specific areas’ social-economic and physical set up. It is against this fact that semi-arid areas also have their own technologies and strategies to adapt to climate change. Therefore, the study was carried out at Chololo village in Dodoma Municipality, which is a semi-arid area, to analyze Climate Change Adaptation Technologies in Semi-Arid Areas. A total of 110 respondents were interviewed. Majority of the households (92.5%) were reported to depend on agriculture as the main stay of their economy. The major findings of the study revealed that adaptation to climate change is more on the use of natural resources and livelihood at large. Therefore, there are adaptation strategies in Agriculture, Energy, Water, Livestock and Economic technologies.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents adaptation mechanisms employed by people living in semi arid areas against climate change impacts on their livelihoods.  Communities in semi arid Tanzania and particularly in Dodoma are agro-pastoral and therefore highly vulnerable to climate change impacts as their livelihood depends solely on nature.