Ademola, S., 2006. Theories of social conflicts. In: Gaya Best, S. (Ed.) Introduction to Peace and Conflict Studies in West Africa. Ibadan: Spectrum Books and UPEACE Africa Programme. pp: 35-57.
Akpan, E. and U. Etuk, 1990. Aesthetics, philosophical and artistic dimensions. Uyo: Modern Business Press.
Akpan, E.D., 1987. Communication and media arts: An introduction to the basics. Uyo: Modern Business Press.
Akpan, I., 1996. Package as a medium of advertising: A communicative cum aesthetic imperative. Journal of University Media and Aesthetics, 1(1): 45 – 53.
Akpan, I., 2011. Aesthetics in public relations. Journal of Media and Aesthetics, 3(1): 16 – 17.
Ani, N., 2008. Aesthetics in advertising: A case study of advertisements. International Journal of Communication, 7(8): 326 – 334.
Anim, E., 2003. The aesthetic value of newspaper layout. Journal of University Media and Aesthetics, 1(3): 63-75. View at Google Scholar
Batta, H., 2008. Aesthetic considerations in the design of magazine cover. International Journal of Communication, 6(8): 300 – 312. View at Google Scholar
Eti, C., 2009. Objectivity and balance in conflict reporting: Imperatives for the Niger Delta Press. AKSU Journal of Communication Research, 1(1): 4 – 5.
Folarin, B., 2002. Theories of mass commujication: An introductory text. 3rd Edn., Ibadan: Bakinfol Publications.
Frost, C., 2012. Designing for newspapers and magazines. London: Routledge.
Gutierrez, J., 2012. European Union Election Observation Mission Report, Freetown.
Ikpe, E., 2003. Aesthetics in organisational corporate culture for effective corporate image. Journal of University Media and Aesthetics, 1(3): 40 - 46.
Ikpe, E.H., 1990. Organisational communication problems and effective approaches process . In Akpan, E. D. (Ed.), Communication arts: priciples, applications, and practices. Uyo: Modern Business Press. pp: 25-31.
Jayakamar, K., 2014. Peace Journalism and Boko Haram. Retrieved from https/www/insightonconflict.org. [Accessed November 9, 2016].
Johnson, E., 2004. Aesthetics, the dialectics and theatrics and communication. Nigeria: Concept Publications.
Kerr, R. and J. Lincoln, 2008. The special court for Sierra Leone,outreach,legacy and impact, final report. London: King’s College.
M’Bayo, R., R. Nwanko and C. Onwumechili, 2000. The press and politics in Africa. Lampeter, Wales: The Edward Mellen Press.
McQuail, D., 2005. Mcquail’s mass communication theory. 5th Edn., London: Sage Publications.
Nkana, N., 2003. An analysis of Nigerian television authority’s Newsline programme: The Aesthetic and Artistic Dimension. An Unpublished Dissertation, University of Uyo, Nigeria.
Onu, G., 2009. The method of conflict resolution and transformation. In: Ikejiana-Clark, M. (Ed). Peace Studies Studies and Conflict Resolution in Nigeria. Ibadan: Spectrum Books. pp: 83-102.
Owens-Ibie, N., 2002. Socio-cultural considerations in conflict reporting in Nigeria. In: Pate, U. (Ed) Intrduction to Conflict Reporting in Nigeria. Lagos: Friedrich Ebert Stifting. pp: 30-44.
Udoakah, N., 1996. Print media aesthetics: A forgotten notion in mass communication. Journal of University Media and Aesthetics, 1(2): 20 – 26.
Udoakah, N., 2014. Government and the media in Nigeria. Ibadan: Stirling Horden Publishers Ltd.
Udoakah, N. and F. Oliseh, 2009. Readers perception of the aesthetic elements in cover page designs of newsmagazines in Nigeria. Journal of Communication and Media Research, 2(7): 93 – 105.
Udoh, G., 2010. Aesthetics as a factor in newspaper selection among academics in South-South Nigeria. An Unpublished Doctoral Thesis of the University of Uyo, Nigeria.
Udoh, G. and C. Obot, 2013. Textual aesthetics: A look at print media news and features in Nigeria. Global Journal, 5(13): 11 – 16.
Umar, M., 2002. Reporting conflict on radio: The editorial dimension. In: Pate, U. (Ed) Introduction to Conflict Reporting in Nigeria. Lagos: Friedrich Ebert Stifting. pp: 121-132.
Wilson, D., 1996. Traditional media arts: An aesthetic appreciation of the town crier. Journal of University Media and Aesthetics, 1(1): 24 – 25.
Wilson, D., 2015. Ethnocommunicology, trado-modern commmunication and mediamorphosis in Nigeria: An Iconoclast's demystification of some communication traditions. Uyo: University of Uyo Press.
Zettl, H., 2005. Sight, sound, motion: Applied media aesthetics. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc.
Zettl, H., 2009. Television production handbook. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
No any video found for this article.
(2017). An Aesthetic Appraisal of Newspaper Coverage of Boko Haram Activities. Journal of New Media and Mass Communication, 4(1): 16-32. DOI: 10.18488/journal.91.2017.41.16.32
The International Community and other global bodies have repeatedly issued statements condemning the activities of Boko Haram, a militant organisation which emerged around 2002 as a local Islamic group. The world body has been calling on individuals and institutions, particularly the press, to help in the fight against Boko Haram. However, a typical West African country where the insurgency has as its major flashpoint is Nigeria, whose press, is accordingly used as a case study here. Given the fact that newspapers have a role to play in the fight against Boko Haram, one expects them to be creative in their coverage of the activities of the sect, if their coverage should contribute significantly towards peaceful coexistence. This is where application of aesthetic principles of violent conflict reporting, as identified in this paper, comes in. But have the newspapers been applying the aesthetic indices of violent conflict reporting identified in this paper, while contributing their quota towards the return of peace to the sub-region? An appraisal of the various stories on the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria within the last two years of the group’s peak activities shows that Nigerian newspapers have been mainly informative and alarmist in their coverage of the activities of the group, and could not strike a balance with the other aesthetic indices. The paper concludes, therefore, that Nigerian newspapers are, to a great extent, mono aesthetic in their coverage of Boko Haram activities, and needs to ensure an aesthetic equilibrium for them to create more impact in the peace process.
This study contributes to existing scanty literature in newspaper aesthetics. It uses a new methodology, called aesthetic content analysis. It is one of very few studies which have investigated aesthetics in conflict reporting. The paper primarily finds out that Nigerian newspapers are mono-aesthetic in their coverage of Boko Haram activities.
Content Preference among Online and Hardcopy Newspaper Readers in Imo State
Abdulraheem, M., R. Adisa and A. La’aro, 2012. Information technology revolution and the future of print media in Nigeria: Usage across age groups. Advances in Management, 10(1): 29-40. View at Google Scholar
Agence, F.P.B., 2009. Daily mail group to cut 1,000 jobs. Retrieved from http://www.breitbart.com/ [Accessed January 31, 2014].
Ahlers, D., 2006. News consumption and the new electronic media. Harvard International Journal of Press-Politics, 11(1): 29-52. View at Google Scholar
Baker, R., 2007. Goodbye to newspapers? Economist’s view. Retrieved from http://economistsview.typepad.com/economistsview/2007/07/goodbye-to-news.html [Accessed August 4, 2013].
Baran, S., 2002. Introduction to mass communication: Media literacy and culture. 2nd Edn., Boston: McGraw-Hill. pp: 82.
Business Week, 2005. Net to newspapers: Drop dead. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decline_of_newspapers [Accessed March 31, 2014].
Chicago Tribune, 2009. Seattle Post-Intelligencer to go online-only; Rocky Mountain News alumni seek to launch own Denver site. Chicago Tribune, March 16. Retrieved from http://newsblogs.chicagotribune.com/towerticker/2009/03/seattle-postintelligencer-to-go-online-only-rocky-mountain-news-alumni-seek-to-launch-own-denver-sit.html [Accessed May 23, 2013].
Cooper, C., 2009. From bad to worse: The state of the media in 2009. Coop’s Corner. Retrieved from http://news.cnet.com/8301-10787_3-10197485-60.html [Accessed March 3, 2014].
Daily Trust, 2012. Kaduna newspaper vendors say online publication disrupts sales. Tuesday, April 17. [Accessed March 3, 2014].
Dimmick, J., Y. Chen and Z. Li, 2004. Competition between the internet and traditional news media: The gratification-opportunities Niche Dimension. Journal of Media Economics, 17(1): 19-33. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
Dominick, J., 2009. The dynamics of mass communication: Media in the digital age. 10th Edn., Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Dutta-Bergman, M.J., 2004. Complementarity in consumption of news types across traditional and new media. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(1): 41-60. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
Edogor, I., A. Jonah and L. Ojo, 2014. Influence of social media on youths’ usage of traditional mass media in Nigeria. New Media and Mass Communication, 1(3): 54-69.
Esuh, P. and H. Ogaraku, 2013. Social media and political campaigns in Nigeria’s 2011 presidential election. Innovations: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Graduate School, University of Uyo, 1(1): 12-27.
Grossman, L.K., 1999. From Marconi to Murrow to Drudge? Columbia Journalism Review, 38(2): 17-18. View at Google Scholar
Jonassen, D., 2004. Handbook of research on educational communications and technology. 2nd Edn., Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kirchhoff, S.M., 2009. The U.S. Newspaper industry in transition: A congressional research service. Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/key_workplace/634/ [Accessed March 3, 2014].
Lieberman, D., 2009. Newspaper closings raise fears about the industry. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/money/media/2009-03-17-newspapersdownturn_N.htm [Accessed March 3, 2014].
Livingstone, S. and M. Bober, 2003. UK children go online: Listening to young people’s experiences. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/28956492/UK_Children_Go_Online_Listening_to_Young_Peoples_Experiences [Accessed October 14, 2013].
Mcllroy, T., 2013. The future of publishing: The future of newspapers. Retrieved from http://www.thefutureofpublishing.com/industries/the-future-of-newspapers [Accessed February 17, 2014].
McQuail, D., 2010. Mcquail’s mass communication theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Morton, J., 2007. Buffeted: Newspapers are paying the price for shortsighted thinking. American Journalism Review. Retrieved from http://ajrarchive.org/Article.asp?id=4416 [Accessed March 3, 2014].
Nwabueze, C., 2011. Magazine & newspaper management and production: An introductory text. Owerri: TopShelve Publishers.
Okunna, S., 1999. Introduction to mass communication. 2nd Edn., Enugu: New Generation Books.
Omoniyi, T., 2010. Nigeria: Dwindling sales - a looming media challenge. Daily Trust, April 6. Retrieved from http://allafrica.com/stories/201004121635.html [Accessed March 3, 2014].
Opgenhaffen, M. and L. d’Haenens, 2011. The impact of online news features on learning from news: A knowledge experiment. International Journal of Internet Science, 6(1): 8-28. View at Google Scholar
Pavlik, J. and S. Ross, 2000. Journalism online: Exploring the impact of new media on news and society. In: Albarran, A. & Goff, D. (Eds.), Understanding the web: Social, political, and economic dimensions of the internet. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing. pp: 117-133.
Pérez-Peña, R., 2008. Newspaper circulation continues to decline rapidly. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/28/business/media/28circ.html [Accessed May 23, 2013].
Pew Research Center, 2015. State of the News Media 2015: Numbers, Facts and Trends Shaping the World. Retrieved from http://www.journalism.org/files/2015/04/FINAL-STATE-OF-THE-NEWS-MEDIA1.pdf [Accessed June 31, 2016].
Plunkett, J., 2005. Murdoch predicts gloomy future for Press. Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2005/nov/24/pressandpublishing.business [Accessed March 3, 2014].
Popoola, W., 2010. The solution to the dwindling newspaper circulation in Nigeria. Wow Effect Communication. Retrieved from www.woweffectng.com [Accessed February 17, 2014].
Rodman, G., 2006. Mass media in a changing world: History, industry, controversy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Rogers, E., 1995. Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.
Rogers, E., 2003. Diffusion of innovations. 5th Edn., New York: Free Press.
Smith, J.E., 2005. Content differences between print and online newspapers. Theses & Dissertations, Graduate School, University of South Florida Scholar Commons.
Stanistreet, M., 2015. It is not the BBC’s fault the local Press is in trouble. Guardian. Retrieved from www.theguardian.com/media/2015/jul/15/bbc-local-press-newspapers [Accessed March 10, 2016].
Sternvik, J., I. Wadbring and L. Weibull, 2008. Newspaper in a media changing world: A Swedish trend. The newspaper research program. Department of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Göteborg.
Talabi, F.O., 2014. Influence of online edition on newspaper readership in South-Western Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Uyo, Nigeria.
Tapscott, D., 1998. Growing up digital: The rise of the net generation. New York: McGraw Hill.
The Economist, 2006. The future of newspapers: Who killed the newspaper? Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/node/7830218 [Accessed May 23, 2013].
Thottam, G., 1999. The future of newspapers: Survival or extinction. Media Asia, 26(4): 216-221. View at Google Scholar
Tucson Citizen, 2009. Tucson citizen to cease publication March 21 if no buyer found. Tucson Citizen January 17. Available from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tucson_Citizen [Accessed May 23, 2013].
Uwosomah, A., 2010. The Vibrancy of Nigerian Newspaper Industry: Why newspaper business still booms even with low audience readership and subscription. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/austenonereader/occupational-hazards-of-journalists-in-nigeria-4410716 [Accessed March 3, 2014].
Varian, H., 2013. The economics of the newspaper business. International Journalism Festival. Retrieved from http://www.journalismfestival.com/news/hal-varian-on-the-economics-of-the-newspaper-business/ [Accessed January 11, 2015].
(2017). Content Preference among Online and Hardcopy Newspaper Readers in Imo State. Journal of New Media and Mass Communication, 4(1): 1-15. DOI: 10.18488/journal.91/2017.4.1/18.104.22.168
The emergence of newspapers online has created an ambivalence globally.
Whereas the general feeling is that the online version of newspapers are
a threat to the print’s business model, it is difficult to tell
between online version and hardcopy newspapers which one is more
economically rewarding as both are readily available and appear to
thrive at least in Nigeria. This study is a survey of 392 newspaper
readers in Imo State, selected in accordance with the Taro Yamane
formula. Findings show that 80% of the respondents read both versions of
newspapers, and that content is immaterial as a determinant of
preferred version (76%). Rather, availability accounts for the version
attended to per time. In addition, certain demographic and psychographic
factors influence choice of content as well as media. It is therefore
recommended among other things that the newspaper industry strive to
provide both online and print versions provided that appropriate
emphasis is laid on news which respondents consider the most valuable of
This is one of the few studies that have investigated preference among
Nigerian newspaper readers. Findings reveal that although the online
version of newspapers is clearly preferred, readers are content with any
version available to them provided that their information needs are
met. Print is losing, but still viable.