International Journal of Geography and Geology

Published by: Pak Publishing Group 
Online ISSN: 2305-7041
Print ISSN: 2306-9872
Total Citation: 33

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Interdisciplinary Studies of Ancient and the Most Ancient Heritage Sites in the Geography of Culture

Pages: 40-47
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Interdisciplinary Studies of Ancient and the Most Ancient Heritage Sites in the Geography of Culture

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2017.6.3/10.3.40.47

A. Paranina , Al. Grigoryev

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  3. Grigoryev, A.l.A., 2015. Stone statues - indicators of development of the planet. Vestnik St. Petersburg State University Series 7, 2(58): 65-75.
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  11. Paranina, A.N., 2016. Gnomon as sours of information on planet rhythms. Journal of Geomate, 10(20): 1815-1821. View at Publisher
  12. Paranina, A.N. and R.V. Paranin, 2009. Interaction of the nature and ancient persons on the coast of the White Sea. Journal of Wetlands Biodiversity, 4(4): 131-140.
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(2017). Interdisciplinary Studies of Ancient and the Most Ancient Heritage Sites in the Geography of Culture. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 6(3): 40-47. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2017.6.3/10.3.40.47
Ancient and the most ancient heritage sites are revered landscapes or their components (rock sculptures, geoglyphs, sacred hills, trees, aquatic complexes and other objects of natural, anthropogenic and mixed origin), which are usually associated with folk traditions and legends. Authors of the article relate inclusion of such objects in the cultural landscape to prehistoric times (the Stone Age and earlier), and as the main primary function allocate astronomical orientation in space-time. The article shows examples of possible instrumental use of well-known and respected sites on the example of the earth's surface arched sculptures located in different regions of the world. As a result of studies carried out on the basis of maps, satellite images, photos, published descriptions, the authors conclude that most of the objects served as elements of information support systems, were included into the ancient local and regional navigation network and represent key parts of the organization of geo-cultural space, that was the objective basis of their sacralization.
Contribution/ Originality
The author's concept of navigation model operation of the world opens new opportunities of reconstruction of primary rational purpose of ancient objects of cultural heritage. It is shown that the sacral sense and an esthetics of objects are bound to their informational (instrumental) function in a life support system.

Challenges of Enforcement of Forestry Legislation in Taraba State, Nigeria

Pages: 48-57
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Challenges of Enforcement of Forestry Legislation in Taraba State, Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2017.6.3/10.3.48.57

Ahmed, Y.M. , Oruonye, E.D.

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(2017). Challenges of Enforcement of Forestry Legislation in Taraba State, Nigeria. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 6(3): 48-57. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2017.6.3/10.3.48.57
Forests are essential resources for human survival and well-being. Within developing countries, millions of extremely poor people depend on forest resources for their livelihoods and security. The forest resources of Taraba State has witnessed high timber and fuelwood exploitation, bush burning, expansion of farmlands and grazing activities. Despite the existence of forest legislation in the state, illegal logging and indiscriminate forest resource exploitation has continued to increase at alarming rate. This makes it imperative to reappraise the forestry legislation in the state and the challenges of effective enforcement of these legislations. Data were generated from secondary materials, personal observation and interviews with officials of the Department of Forestry. The study findings shows that with increase in population, people need to expand their settlements and require more lands to cultivate in order to meet increasing food requirement. This leads to encroachment into forestry reserve. Poor logistics and weak institutional framework hampers the capacity of the forestry officials to enforce forestry legislation. This has resulted in the depletion of Forest resources particularly timber and woody plant resources. Some of the problems includes lack of political will on the part of government, underfunding, lack of or dilapidated office/accommodation, inadequate manpower, lack of equipment, lack of capacity building, Government preference and emphasis on revenue generation as against biodiversity conservation, Conspiracy of forestry officers, village heads and chiefs with merchant timber loggers, lack of effective supervision, coordination and enforcement of forest legislations. The study recommends the need for the government to be more proactive on the issues of enforcement of forestry legislation.
Contribution/ Originality
This study has contributed to the ongoing discussion on the challenges of effective enforcement of forestry legislation in Nigeria as a means of protecting forest and wildlife resources.

Climate Characteristics of Safranbolu (Karabuk) and Saffron Cultivation

Pages: 58-69
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Climate Characteristics of Safranbolu (Karabuk) and Saffron Cultivation

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2017.6.3/10.3.58.69

Mucahit COSKUN , Mesut GOK , Sevda COSKUN

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(2017). Climate Characteristics of Safranbolu (Karabuk) and Saffron Cultivation. International Journal of Geography and Geology, 6(3): 58-69. DOI: 10.18488/journal.10/2017.6.3/10.3.58.69
Saffron (Crocus sativus) has been one of the most important spices in the world since ancient times. Though there is a variety of information about its origin, it is believed to have emerged in Iran, Turkey, or Greece and have spread across the world. Saffron, which is commonly produced in the Mediterranean and Southwest Asian countries, is used in many different fields such as painting, medicine, perfumery, and food. Climate and soil conditions also play an important role in saffron production. Saffron, which shows a flexible characteristic in terms of temperature demand, shows resistance to cold temperatures down to -18 degrees and to summer temperatures up to 45 degrees. The type of soil suggested for the development of the plant is clay loam soil. Although saffron growing in Turkey has lost its former significance today, it is still carried out on a small scale in Safranbolu city. This study intends to show the positive effects of climatic elements prevailing in the region on the production of saffron, the world's most expensive plant, and to reestablish its former importance in the region. The climate data used in the present study were taken from the General Directorate of Meteorology of Turkey. The climatic conditions required by the Thornthwaite climate classification method. Systematic approach was used as a research method. The maps used in the study were prepared on ArcGIS 10.3 GIS (Geography Information System) package. According to the Thornthwaite method, Safranbolu is arid-low humidity in terms of rainfall activity, has a 2nd level mesothermal climate, has no water excess, and is closed to sea effect. Considering the climate demands of saffron, it can be said that the climate of Safranbolu city is suitable for saffron growing. In Safranbolu, saffron plants are currently cultivated only in few villages. However, more effort should be made to enhance the production of saffron, which is as precious as gold.

Contribution/ Originality
This study describes the historical growth, present status and future prospect of Saffron in Turkey that has already been grown for years in different countries of world. This research evaluates production, ecology and farming of Saffron in Turkey and world thus making it different from other related researches.