R. K. Datta and M. Nanavaty, Global silk industry: A complete source book. New Delhi, India: APH Publishing, 2007.
FAO, "Conservation status of sericulture germplasm resources in the World - II." Conservation status of silkworm (Bombyx Mori) Genetic Resources in the World (Papers contributed to Expert Consultation on Promotion of Global Exchange of Sericulture Germplasm, Bangkok, Thailand; September 2002) (compiled by Kee-Wook Sohn). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 2003.
G. Kirpik, "Haclilar ve Ipek Yolu [The Crusades and the Silk Road]," Bilig: Turk Dunyasi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, vol. 61, pp. 173-200, 2003.
A. Toprak, "Doğu- Batı Kültürel Etkile şiminde İpek Yolu (Başlangıçtan Gökt ürk D önemi Sonuna Kadar) [The Silk Road in the cultural interaction of East and West (from the beginning to the end of the Gokturk Period) (Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis)," Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu, Gazi Universitesi Ankara, 2008.
A. Sahin and S. Cengiz, "16nci Yüzyil Fiyat Devrimi ve Osmanli Iran Savaslarinin Osmanli Ipekçilik Endüstrisi Üzerine Etkileri," Isletme ve Ekonomi Arastirmalari Dergisi, vol. 1, pp. 69-82, 2010. View at Google Scholar
N. A. Gunay, "Yavuz Sultan Selim'in Ipek Ambargosu [The embargo on silk of Yavuz Sultan Salim]," Bursa'da Yasam Dergisi, Aralik, pp. 166-173, 2013.
H. Tas, "Bursa Folklorunda Ipek ve Koza [The folklore of cocoons and silk in Bursa]. Bursa'da Yasam Dergisi," Aralik, pp. 136-147, 2013.
N. E. Bayram, "1837-1923 sürecinde Bursada ipekçilik sektörünün sosyo-ekonomik analizi," Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi, Uludag Universitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 2013/1, vol. 14, pp. 45-58, 2013. View at Google Scholar
M. Ersevinc, "19-20 Yuzyillarda Bursa'da Ipekcilik [Sericulture in Bursa in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries]," Bursa'da Yasam Dergisi, Aralik, pp. 92-101, 2013.
D. Altun, "XIX Yüzyilda Bursada Épek Böcekçiligi [Sericulture in Bursa in the nineteenth century], Balikesir Universitesi," Fen Edebiyat Fakultesi Karesi Tarih Kulubu Bulteni, vol. 1, pp. 102-108, 2007.
W. Hunter, "Bursa Mektubu - Mayis 1792 (Cev: Ekiz, C. ve Ulutas, C.) [A letter from Bursa of 1792 (from C Ekiz and C Uluas)]," Bursa'da Yasam Dergisi, Aralik, pp. 396-401, 2013.
A. Soysaldi and H. A. Ozdemir, "Bursa Kiz Ceyizinde Ipegin Yeri [Silkworm girls dowries in Bursa]. Bursa'da Yasam Dergisi," Aralik, pp. 156-165, 2013.
H. Yucekaya, "Amasya Ipekçiligi Üzerine (1750-1900)," Gazi Akademik Bakis Dergisi, vol. 13, pp. 269-284, 2013. View at Google Scholar
S. Tezcan, F. Tezcan, N. Gulpercin, A. O. Karababa, A. Kanlioglu, A. Uzum, N. Tanyeri, F. Yolcu, N. D. Ozcan, I. Ilhan, R. Duman, A. Onucar, A. K. Birgucu, M. Atalay, V. Eraslan, S. Oruc, T. Baybora, and M. C. Ersoy, "Toplumda Böcek FarkindaligiYaratılmasında BÖFYAP Projelerinin Yeri [The importance of BOFYAP Projects in raising the awareness of insects in the society of Turkey]," Biyoloji Bilimleri Arastirma Dergisi, vol. 3, pp. 101-106, 2010.
Turkish Statistical Institute, Silkworm sector questionnaire. Ankara: Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrived from: http://www.abgs.gov.tr/tarama/tarama_files/11/sorular_cevaplar_files/cevaplar/Ipekbocegi.pdf Accessed 25 June 2015, 2005.
Anon, Yerli Hayvan Irk Ve Hatlarinin Tescili Hakkinda Teblig, [Registration of Domestic Animal Breeds]. Ankara: Resmi Gazete Number 25668, 2004.
GDAR, Domestic animal genetic resources in Turkey. Ankara: General Directorate of Agricultural Research and Policy, Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock, 2011.
D. E. Akkir, F. A. B. Yildiran, and S. S. Cakir, "Molecular analysis of three local silkworm breeds (Alaca, Bursa Beyazi and Hatay Sarisi) by RAPD-PCR and SDS-PAGE methods," Kafkas Universitesi Veteriner Fakultesi Dergisi, vol. 16, pp. 265-269, 2008. View at Google Scholar
P. I. Tzenov, "Present status for utilizing of sericultural genetic resources in some Eastern European and Central Asian Countries." Retrieved: http://www.bacsa-silk.org/en/sericulture-germplasm-in-bacsa-countries/. [Accessed 28 June 2015], 2015.
Z. Dortok-Abaci, "Éngiliz Konsolosluk Belgeleri Işiginda Bursa Ekonomisi (1848-1896)," Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, vol. 7, pp. 159-171, 2006. View at Google Scholar
M. A. Yildirim, "Düyûn-I Umûmiyye İdâresinin Kurulmasindan Sonra Osmanlida Kozaciliğin (İpekböcekçiliğinin) Gelişimine Dair [On the development of sericulture production following establishment of the Public Debts Institution]," Mustafa Kemal Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi, vol. 10, pp. 65-83, 2013. View at Google Scholar
Anon, Ipek Böcegi Ve Tohumu Yetistirilmesi Ve Muayene Ve Satilmasi Hakkinda Kanun [Law on the production, inspection and sale of silkworms and eggs]. Ankara: Resmi Gazete, Number 402, 1926.
Anon, "Yili Ipek böcegi raporu [Silkworm Reports]. Akara: General directorate of cooperatives," Ministry of Customs and Trade, 2013.
S. Arat, "In Vitro conservation and preliminary molecular identification of some Turkish domestic animal genetic resources (Turkhaygen-I)," presented at the Powerpoint Presentation at the Eighth Global Conference on the Conservation of Animal Genetic Resources, 4-8 October.2011, Tekirdag, Turkey, 2011.
M. Ertugrul, G. Dellal, C. Elmaci, A. O. Akin, E. Pehlivan, M. I. Soysal, and S. Arat, "Ciftlik Hayvanlari Genetik Kaynaklarinin Kullanilmasi ve Surdurulebilir Kullanimi [Conservation of Farm Animal Genetic Resources and their Sustainable Use]," presented at the Turkish Agricultural Engineering Technical Congress VII, Ankara, 2010.
Anon, Yas Koza Destekleme Bakanlar Kurulu Karari, sayili 28612 [Council of Ministers Decision in Support of Silk Production]. Ankara: Resmi Gazete, Number 28612, 2013.
S. Baysal, "Ipekbocegi Yeniden 'Inficar'a Hazirlaniyor [The silkworm is preparing for breeding again]," Bursa'da Yasam Dergisi, Aralik, pp. 190-195, 2013.
Anon, Veteriner hizmetleri, bitki sagligi, gida ve yem Kanunu [Law on veterinary services, phytosanitary, food and feed]. Ankara: Resmi Gazete, Number 27610, 2010.
European Parliament, Briefing for the ENVI delegation to Turkey. Food safety and public health situation in Turkey. Brussels: European Union, 2010.
S. Cappellozza, "S. 7. Conservation status of bombyx mori (Silkworm) Genetic resources in Italy. Conservation Status of Sericulture Germplasm Resources in the World - II.," presented at the Conservation Status of Silkworm (Bombyx Mori) Genetic Resources in the World (Papers Contributed to Expert Consultation on Promotion of Global Exchange of Sericulture Germplasm, Bangkok, Thailand; September 2002) (compiled by Kee-Wook Sohn). Unpaginated. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2002.
BACSA, "Black, caspian seas and central Asia silk association." Retrieved from: http://www.bacsa-silk.org/en/who-are-we/. [Accessed 25 June 2015], 2005.
(2016). The Domestic Livestock Resources of Turkey: Silkworm (Bombyx Mori, L. 1758) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) Lines and their Conservation. International Research Journal of Insect Sciences, 2(2): 12-18. DOI: 10.18488/journal.106.2016.22.12.18
This paper reviews the current status of Turkish silkworm genetic resources and activities being undertaken for their conservation. Silk production and the trade in silk have been important activities in Turkey, which lies on the ancient Silk Road, for many hundreds of years. Current production of silk is on the rise after a period of very low production. Turkey has a well-established programme of conservation and development of all of its domestic animal genetic resources, of which silkworm is considered a constituent part. Three distinct lines of native silkworm have been registered with the national standards body, the Turkish Standards Institute. Distribution of silkworm germplasm is regulated by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock through Cooperative Unions which have more than 10,000 members. Renewed and increased international demand for natural and biological products is favourable to Turkeys silkworm industry. The prognosis for the future development of silk production is strongly positive.
This study documents how silkworms have been kept in Turkey to produce silk as a value-added product for hundreds of years. They add diversity to household and national production. Three lines are being bred and conserved by Government institutions.