Asian Development Policy Review

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Malaria and Agricultural Production in Nigeria


Pages: 91-99
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Malaria and Agricultural Production in Nigeria

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.91.99


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Mosunmola Grace Moses Udoudo --- Gabriel Sunday Umoh --- Aniekan Jim Akpaeti
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Mosunmola Grace Moses Udoudo --- Gabriel Sunday Umoh --- Aniekan Jim Akpaeti (2016). Malaria and Agricultural Production in Nigeria. Asian Development Policy Review, 4(4): 91-99. DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.91.99
Malaria has adverse effect on agricultural production in Nigeria. This study examined the effect of malaria morbidity on the agricultural Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Nigeria as well as predicts the future incidence of malaria in Nigeria. Secondary data employed in the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, production function and Markov chain analysis. Findings from the study revealed that the highest percentage change in malaria morbidity and mortality were recorded in the period between 1996 and 2000 just before the Millennium Development Goal declaration. Malaria impacted negatively on agriculture production in the country both in the short and long-run. For every one reported case of malaria per 100,000 persons in the country, while holding other explanatory variables constant, Agric. GDP will reduce by N 0.762 per year. Projections of malaria morbidity in Nigeria revealed that by the end of the year 2040, the number of people that will die of malaria for every reported case will increase. The paper recommends that efforts should be directed towards the complete extermination of malaria vectors.

Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the existing literature on the effect of malaria disease on agricultural gross domestic product in Nigeria so as to help in developing more effective approaches towards reducing its negative affect on agriculture as well as its eradication in the country.
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  2. Aruofor, R.O., 2009. Analysis of health care effectiveness using Markov chains; an outlook to year 2020: The Nigerian case. Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 51(2): 141-159.
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A Comparative Study Analysing the Demographic and Economic Factors Affecting Life Expectancy among Developed and Developing Countries in Asia


Pages: 100-110
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A Comparative Study Analysing the Demographic and Economic Factors Affecting Life Expectancy among Developed and Developing Countries in Asia

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.100.110


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Jena Parameswari Summoogum --- Benjamin Chan Yin Fah
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Jena Parameswari Summoogum --- Benjamin Chan Yin Fah (2016). A Comparative Study Analysing the Demographic and Economic Factors Affecting Life Expectancy among Developed and Developing Countries in Asia. Asian Development Policy Review, 4(4): 100-110. DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.100.110
The two aims of the study are to analyse the demographic and economic factors affecting the life expectancy at birth among three developed and three developing countries in Asia, and to assess the gap between the developed and developing countries, based on the determinant factors of life expectancy. The sample consists of secondary data collected from 1990 to 2013. The demographic factors include the crude birth rate, crude death rate and population growth, while the economic factors consist of the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita, gross savings, total health expenditure and labour force participation rate. The factors affecting the life expectancy at birth were analysed by both the linear and logarithmic regression approaches. The logarithmic model was chosen to explain the objectives of the study due to the presence of anomalies in the linear model. The obtained results demonstrate the presence of a gap between the developed and developing countries. It is observed that the crude birth rate and the total health expenditures significantly affect the life expectancy in the three developed countries. However, the rise in the life expectancy in the developing countries cannot be explained by a specific regressor, and may occur due to country-based changes in the demographic or economic factors.

Contribution/ Originality
This paper suggests that different types of demographic and economic factors may have a different impact towards life expectancy. Unlike other studies, this study differentiates between the developed and developing countries using both linear and logarithmic regression approaches.
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Prospects and Challenges of Rural Small Scale Industries in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana


Pages: 111-126
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Prospects and Challenges of Rural Small Scale Industries in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.111.126


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Michael Addaney --- Jonas Ayaribilla Akudugu --- Edwin Supreme Asare
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Michael Addaney --- Jonas Ayaribilla Akudugu --- Edwin Supreme Asare (2016). Prospects and Challenges of Rural Small Scale Industries in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana. Asian Development Policy Review, 4(4): 111-126. DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.111.126
Rural Small Scale Industries (RSSIs) contribute significantly to economic development. Despite their prospects, RSSIs in Ghana face many challenges that need timely planned interventions to propel them on the path of sustainable growth and development. This article is based on a study conducted in 2016 on the prospects and challenges of RSSIs in Ghana. Through a case study approach, both primary and secondary data were gathered to examine the prospects and challenges facing a sampled 200 RSSIs in the Sunyani Municipality of Ghana. Most of the RSSIs studied were in their first five years of operation. The research revealed that the three main challenges of promoting RSSIs are poor management skill, limited access to credit, and inadequate market. Another revelation of the research was that RSSIs which received training in capacity building and advisory services improved in their business operations and activities. And, this led to better output. The contrary was however the case for those RSSIs which were not provided with such capacity building and business advisory services. The study thus recommends timely provision of improved capacity building services, easy access to open and integrated market as well as to low-interest rate credits with flexible terms of payment to RSSIs to propel their sustainable growth.

Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes to the literature on the growth of rural small scale industries (RSSIs) in the developing country context with an analytical focus on Ghana. It is one of the few studies that have examined the potentials of and the distinctive problems to the sustainable growth of RSSIs in Ghana.
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A Supply-Lock Competitive Market for Investable Products


Pages: 127-133
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A Supply-Lock Competitive Market for Investable Products

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.127.133


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Yong-Bo Wang  --- Jin-Ray Lu
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Yong-Bo Wang  --- Jin-Ray Lu (2016). A Supply-Lock Competitive Market for Investable Products. Asian Development Policy Review, 4(4): 127-133. DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.127.133
We propose a new market structure, a supply-lock competition (SLC), for analyzing transactions of investable goods. This study explains and analyzes how the SLC is applicable for transactions of stock, art, real estate, currency, and scarce goods. We suggest that the formation and fluctuation of the market price for these investable assets are not only related to their intrinsic values or investors? behavior, but are also derived from supply restriction. A mechanism of the SLC market structure benefits market efficiency but also continues volatility of asset prices in secondary markets as well. We demonstrate that a demand orientation dominates the valuation of investable assets, resulting in a divergence of market price and intrinsic value.

Contribution/ Originality
The study contributes to the literature by clearly describing and explaining a supply-lock competitive market structure, in a manner that previous studies have not analyzed. The supply-lock competitive market is more applicable for explaining the practical phenomenon of price dynamics for investable assets.
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International Trade Regulations on BPA: Global Health and Economic Implications


Pages: 134-142
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International Trade Regulations on BPA: Global Health and Economic Implications

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.134.142


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Naveen Reddy Kadasala --- Badri Narayanan --- Yang Liu 
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Naveen Reddy Kadasala --- Badri Narayanan --- Yang Liu  (2016). International Trade Regulations on BPA: Global Health and Economic Implications. Asian Development Policy Review, 4(4): 134-142. DOI: 10.18488/journal.107/2016.4.4/107.4.134.142
Several international trade agreements being negotiated today are mostly aimed at enhancing trade and economy, with less or no concern about other important aspects, including environment. However, there have been some trade regulations as well as rules within some of these agreements that aim at enforcing stringent requirements and constraints on free trade of certain commodities that harm the environment and increase risk factors of diseases. Bisphenol A (BPA) is one such commodity and is the focus of this paper. Despite its heavy use across the world, BPA has severe health and ecological effects, leading the developed countries to impose regulations on them. This paper reviews the adverse health and ecological effects of BPA as well as the regulations on them. It further goes on to perform an economic model simulation using a widely used global model named GTAP, to understand the global economic effects of banning the trade of BPA. We also estimate the costs arising from the adverse health effects of BPA using WHO-DALY dataset and the literature. We arrive at a range of costs associated with health and conclude that regulating BPA is at best, a very inexpensive policy to promote health and economies of the world, and at worst, slightly more expensive than the health costs associated with BPA.

Contribution/ Originality
This study’s primary and unique contribution is the analysis of the impact of trade regulations on BPA, in an interdisciplinary way, covering aspects of chemistry and economic modeling.
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