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(2017). Estimating Air Particulate Matter 10 Using Landsat Multi-Temporal Data and Analyzing its Annual Temporal Pattern over Gaza Strip, Palestine. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 7(2): 22-37. DOI: 10.18488/journal.2/2017.7.2/18.104.22.168
Palestine faces economic and political issues such as conflict, siege
and urbanization; all these have led to an increase in the air pollution
over Gaza Strip. In this study, Particulate matter 10 (PM10)
concentrations over Gaza Strip has been estimated by Landsat Thematic
Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, based
on a multispectral algorithm. Simultaneously, in-situ measurements for
the corresponding particulate are acquired for selected time period.
Landsat and ground data for eleven years are used to develop the
algorithm while four years data (2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014) have been
used to validate the results of algorithm. The developed algorithm gives
highest regression, R coefficient value i.e. 0.86; RMSE value as 9.71
?g/m?; P values as 0. Average validation of algorithm show that
calculated PM10 strongly correlates with measured PM10, indicating high
efficiency of algorithm for the mapping of PM10 concentration during the
years 2000 to 2014. Overall results show increase in minimum, maximum
and average yearly PM10 concentrations, also presents similar trend over
urban area. The rate of urbanization has been evaluated by supervised
classification of the Landsat image. Urban sprawl from year 2000 to 2014
results in a high concentration of PM10 in the study area.
The paper contributes the first ever research on the air quality of Gaza Strip, Palestine. The propose algorithm in this research is to estimate the particulate matter 10 using remote sensing data and also study the impact of environmental parameters on air quality during last 15 years in the study area.
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(2017). Aggression Theories Revisited: Lorenz’s Neoinstinctivism, Wilson’s Socio-Biology and Skinner’s Behavioral Theories. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 7(2): 38-45. DOI: 10.18488/journal.2.2017.72.38.45
This article aims to revisit neo-instinctivism, socio-biological and
behavioral theories account of human aggression. Humans apparently have a
long history of violence. It is customary in many social psychology
textbooks contain chapters on aggression. One of the explanations about
the subject usually has a section on the ?instinct theory of aggression?
that usually associated to the ethologist Konrad Lorenz who aims to
examine aggression with a class of biological explanations. Aggressive
energy is an instinctual drive that enhance until it explodes. It may be
released by external stimuli. Socio-biological perspective contributes a
more complicated interactionist model for contemplating the origins of
human aggression. Wilson?s ideas combine ethological studies with other
biological factors to explain human aggression and war as a consequence
of the interaction between the cultural environment and genes. In order
to understand human aggression, there are the dichotomies between
biology and environment, nature and nurture, or instincts and learning.
It is interesting to point out that the radical behaviorists Skinner is
as much an evolutionist as Konrad Lorenz both of whom believe the nature
of the mechanisms designed by natural selection. The objective of this
study is to describe different definitions and causes of aggression in
humans. It is important to present different explanations of aggression
ranging from neo-instinctivism, socio-biological, and behavioral
analysis. In the first part of the paper, after the definition of
aggression, it entails a close look to Lorenz?s neo-instintivism
approach. The second part focuses on Wilson?s sociobiological idea of
the aggression. The third section emphasizes Skinner?s behavioralism.
The conclusion gives a summary of all perspectives.
This study contributes in the existing literature about aggression on neo-instinctivism, socio-biology and behavioral theories. It is one of the few studies which combine and investigate two main theories (neo-instinctivism and socio-biology) about aggression. It revisits Lorenz’s neo-instinctivism and Wilson’s socio-biological ideas about human aggression.