Journal of Asian Scientific Research

Published by: Asian Economic and Social Society 
Online ISSN: 2223-1331
Print ISSN: 2226-5724
Total Citation: 729

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Estimating Air Particulate Matter 10 Using Landsat Multi-Temporal Data and Analyzing its Annual Temporal Pattern over Gaza Strip, Palestine

Pages: 22-37
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Estimating Air Particulate Matter 10 Using Landsat Multi-Temporal Data and Analyzing its Annual Temporal Pattern over Gaza Strip, Palestine

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.2/2017.7.2/2.2.22.37

Abdallah Shaheen , Aqeel Ahmed Kidwai , Noor Ul Ain , Midyan Aldabash , Aatif Zeeshan

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(2017). Estimating Air Particulate Matter 10 Using Landsat Multi-Temporal Data and Analyzing its Annual Temporal Pattern over Gaza Strip, Palestine. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 7(2): 22-37. DOI: 10.18488/journal.2/2017.7.2/2.2.22.37
Palestine faces economic and political issues such as conflict, siege and urbanization; all these have led to an increase in the air pollution over Gaza Strip. In this study, Particulate matter 10 (PM10) concentrations over Gaza Strip has been estimated by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, based on a multispectral algorithm. Simultaneously, in-situ measurements for the corresponding particulate are acquired for selected time period. Landsat and ground data for eleven years are used to develop the algorithm while four years data (2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014) have been used to validate the results of algorithm. The developed algorithm gives highest regression, R coefficient value i.e. 0.86; RMSE value as 9.71 ?g/m?; P values as 0. Average validation of algorithm show that calculated PM10 strongly correlates with measured PM10, indicating high efficiency of algorithm for the mapping of PM10 concentration during the years 2000 to 2014. Overall results show increase in minimum, maximum and average yearly PM10 concentrations, also presents similar trend over urban area. The rate of urbanization has been evaluated by supervised classification of the Landsat image. Urban sprawl from year 2000 to 2014 results in a high concentration of PM10 in the study area.
Contribution/ Originality
The paper contributes the first ever research on the air quality of Gaza Strip, Palestine. The propose algorithm in this research is to estimate the particulate matter 10 using remote sensing data and also study the impact of environmental parameters on air quality during last 15 years in the study area.

Aggression Theories Revisited: Lorenz’s Neoinstinctivism, Wilson’s Socio-Biology and Skinner’s Behavioral Theories

Pages: 38-45
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Aggression Theories Revisited: Lorenz’s Neoinstinctivism, Wilson’s Socio-Biology and Skinner’s Behavioral Theories

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.2.2017.72.38.45

Ayse Dilek OGRETIR OZCELIK

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(2017). Aggression Theories Revisited: Lorenz’s Neoinstinctivism, Wilson’s Socio-Biology and Skinner’s Behavioral Theories. Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 7(2): 38-45. DOI: 10.18488/journal.2.2017.72.38.45
This article aims to revisit neo-instinctivism, socio-biological and behavioral theories account of human aggression. Humans apparently have a long history of violence. It is customary in many social psychology textbooks contain chapters on aggression. One of the explanations about the subject usually has a section on the ?instinct theory of aggression? that usually associated to the ethologist Konrad Lorenz who aims to examine aggression with a class of biological explanations. Aggressive energy is an instinctual drive that enhance until it explodes. It may be released by external stimuli. Socio-biological perspective contributes a more complicated interactionist model for contemplating the origins of human aggression. Wilson?s ideas combine ethological studies with other biological factors to explain human aggression and war as a consequence of the interaction between the cultural environment and genes. In order to understand human aggression, there are the dichotomies between biology and environment, nature and nurture, or instincts and learning. It is interesting to point out that the radical behaviorists Skinner is as much an evolutionist as Konrad Lorenz both of whom believe the nature of the mechanisms designed by natural selection. The objective of this study is to describe different definitions and causes of aggression in humans. It is important to present different explanations of aggression ranging from neo-instinctivism, socio-biological, and behavioral analysis. In the first part of the paper, after the definition of aggression, it entails a close look to Lorenz?s neo-instintivism approach. The second part focuses on Wilson?s sociobiological idea of the aggression. The third section emphasizes Skinner?s behavioralism. The conclusion gives a summary of all perspectives.
Contribution/ Originality
This study contributes in the existing literature about aggression on neo-instinctivism, socio-biology and behavioral theories. It is one of the few studies which combine and investigate two main theories (neo-instinctivism and socio-biology) about aggression. It revisits Lorenz’s neo-instinctivism and Wilson’s socio-biological ideas about human aggression.