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(2016). Comparing Patatin Class I and Camv 35s Promoters in Expression of Human Calcitonin Gene in Potato (Solanum Tuberosum Cvs. Kardal And Marfona). The International Journal of Biotechnology, 5(4): 52-61. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57/2016.5.4/18.104.22.168
Calcitonin (CT), a 32 amino acid polypeptide hormone is a powerful and
specific inhibitor of bone resorption and is used to treat several human
diseases like hypercalcemia and osteoporosis. To date, many
pharmaceutical proteins of mammalian origin have been synthesized in
plants. To increase the production level of heterologous proteins in
plants, strategies such as choice of stronger promoters and optimization
of codon usage are of major concern. In this study, a human calcitonin
(hCT) gene, driven by two different promoters (Patatin Class I and
Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S) was expressed in two types of potato's
cultivars (cvs) Kardal and Marfona plants, using Agrobacterium-mediated
transformation. The transgenic plants were analyzed by molecular methods
and hCT concentration was determined by quantitative EASIA. The results
showed the localization of hCT production in Kardal potato tubers led
to 0.7% of total soluble proteins whiles total soluble protein was 0.2%
when CaMV 35S promoter was deployed, these results of Marfona when used
Patatin Class I and Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters were 0.3% of
the total soluble protein and 0.1% of the total soluble protein in the
respect. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using analytical
statistics. There was significant difference in mean score of hCT
production when two different promoters and two different cultivars were
used. These results showed that organ specific expression in potato led
to nearly 3 fold higher hCT accumulation than constitutive expression
and Kardal cultivar expressed hCT about 2 times higher than Marfona
The paper's primary contribution is finding that the expression of
foreign gene under the control of organ specific promoter is more than
constitutive promoter in transgenic potato. This study is one of very
few studies which have investigated on the effect of two different
potato plant cultivars for heterologous gene expression level.
Review of Biological Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops and Neonicotinoid Treated Seed Use on Staten Island
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(2016). Review of Biological Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops and Neonicotinoid Treated Seed Use on Staten Island. The International Journal of Biotechnology, 5(4): 62-68. DOI: 10.18488/journal.57/2016.5.4/22.214.171.124
Genetically modified organism (GMO) crops particularly Roundup Ready
Crops have been widely used in commercial agriculture in the United
States in general and Staten Island in particular. However, its use has
promoted concerns about the potential environmental effects of this
technology. Therefore, this work was initiated to review impact of GE
crops and Neonicotinoid to biodiversity, special focus on bees, birds,
and super weeds development at Satan Island. Glyphosate herbicide is now
widely used for growing Roundup Ready crop, like maize and soy bean.
Scientists reported that using glyphosate herbicide by far better than
using the previously used herbicide to the environment and biodiversity.
It is also known that super weed may develop through gene flow from
Roundup Ready Crops to its wild relatives and develop resistance against
roundup. However, this might not be a problem in Staten Island where
there is no wild relative species for widely grown Roundup Ready Crops
like corn and alfaalfa.With regards to Neonicotinoids, it has lower
toxicity to mammals like birds, and fish than other non-target insect
species specially bees and other pollinator. The effect of
Neonicotinoids to non-target species can be minimized using Fluent Agent
in seed coating the which reduces dust contamination. Therefore, the
use of Genetically Engineered Crops and Neonicotinoid Treated Seed needs
special care and management in order to minimize its damage to
non-target insect species.