A. S. Abdel-Baki, M. A. Dkhil, and S. Al-Quraishy, "Bioaccumulation of some heavy metals in tilapia fish relevant to their concentration in water and sediment of Wadi Hanifah, Saudi Arabia," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, pp. 2541-2547, 2011.
B. W. Huang, "Heavy metal concentrations in the common benthic fishes caught from the coastal waters of Eastern Taiwan," Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, vol. 11, pp. 324-330, 2003.
M. Bahnasawy, A. Khidr, and N. Dheina, "Seasonal variations of heavy metals concentrations in mullet, mugil cephalus and Liza Ramada (Mugilidae) from Lake Manzala, Egypt," Journal of Applied Sciences Research, vol. 8, pp. 845-852, 2009.
J. M. Llobert, G. Falcao, C. Casas, A. Teixido, and J. L. Domingo, "Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead in common foods and estimated daily intakes by children, adolescents, adults and seniors of Catalonia, Spain," J. Agri. Food Chem., vol. 51, pp. 838-842, 2003.
C. Copat, F. Bella, M. Castaing, R. Fallico, and S. Sciacca, "Heavy metals concentrations in fish from Sicily (Mediterranean Sea) and evaluation of possible health risks to consumers," Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., vol. 88, pp. 78-83, 2012.
A. K. Singh, S. C. Srivastava, A. Ansari, D. Kumar, and R. Singh, "Environmental monitoring and health risk assessment of African catfish clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) cultured in rural ponds, India," Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., vol. 89, pp. 1142-1147, 2012.
B. Kumar, K. V. Verma, A. K. Naskar, P. Chakraborty, and R. Shah, "Human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish consumption from coastal and fresh water waters in Eastern India along the Bay of Bengal," J. Mar. Biol. Oceanogr., vol. 2, p. 3, 2013.
R. B. Voegborlo and A. A. Adimado, "A simple classical wet digestion technique for the determination of total mercury in fish tissue by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry in low technology environment," Food Chemistry, vol. 123, pp. 936-940, 2009.
T. Linsinger, "Comparison of measurement result with the certified value. European Reference Materials." Available www.erm-crm.org [Accessed 20 March 2014], 2005.
FAO/WHO, "Evaluation of certain food additives and the contaminants mercury, cadmium and lead," Technical Report Series 505; World health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1972.
R. B. Voegborlo, H. Akagi, A. Matsuyama, A. A. Adimado, and J. H. Ephraim, "Total mercury and methylmercury accumulation in the muscle tissue of frigate (Auxis Thazard Thazard) and yellow fin (Thunnus Albacores) Tuna from the Gulf of Guinea, Ghana," Bulletin of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology, vol. 76, pp. 840-847, 2006.
J. A. O. Oronsaye, O. M. Wangboye, and F. A. Oguzie, "Trace metals in some benthic fishes of the Ikpoba River Dam, Benin City, Nigeria," Afr. Journ. Biotech., vol. 9, pp. 8860-8868, 2010.
L. A. Sarsah, Y. Serfor- Armah, A. A. Golow, and J. R. Fianko, "Seasonal investigations into the level of toxic elements in Marine organisms (Fish and Mollusk) along the Coast of Ghana using neutron activation analysis," Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 286-292, 2011.
FAO/WHO, "Evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants," Technical Report Series 759; World health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 1989.
JEFCA, "Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives," presented at the Sixty-First Meeting, Rome 10-19 June 2003. Summary and Conclusions, World Health Organization (WHO)/ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO, 2003.
B. P. Lanphear, R. Hornung, J. Khoury, K. Yolton, P. Baghurst, D. C. Bellinger, R. L. Canfield, K. N. Dietrich, R. Bornschein, T. Greene, S. J. Rothenberg, H. L. Needleman, L. Schnaas, G. Wasserman, J. Graziano, and R. Roberts, "Low-level environmental lead exposure and children’s intellectual function: An international pooled analysis," Environ. Health Perspect, vol. 113, pp. 894-899, 2005.
B. S. Glenn, W. F. Stewart, J. M. Links, A. C. Todd, and B. S. Schwartz, "The longitudinal association of lead with blood pressure," Epidemiology, vol. 14, pp. 30-36, 2003.
S. Vupputuri, J. He, P. Muntner, L. A. Bazzano, P. K. Whelton, and V. Batuman, "Blood lead level is associated with elevated blood pressure in blacks," Hypertension, vol. 41, pp. 463-468, 2003.
D. Nash, L. Magder, M. Lustberg, R. W. Sherwin, R. J. Rubin, R. B. Kaufmann, and E. K. Silbergeld, "Blood lead, blood pressure, and hypertension in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women," JAMA, vol. 289, pp. 1523-1532, 2003.
B. S. Glenn, K. Bandeen-Roche, B. K. Lee, V. M. Weaver, A. C. Todd, and B. S. Schwartz, "Changes in systolic blood pressure associated with lead in blood and bone," Epidemiology, vol. 17, pp. 538-544, 2006.
N. C. Oforka, L. C. Osuiji, and U. I. Onwuachu, "Estimation of dietary intake of cadmium, lead, manganese, zinc and nickel due to consumption of chicken meat by inhabitants of Port-Harcourt Metropolis, Nigeria," Archives of Applied Science Research, vol. 4, pp. 675-684, 2012.
USEPA, "EPA region III risk-based concentration (RBC) table 2008 region III, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103," 2012.
USEPA, Guidance for assessing chemical contamination data for use in fish advisories volume II risk assessment and fish consumption limits EPA/823–B94-004. Washington: United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2000.
(2016). Health Risk Analysis of Mercury, Lead and Cadmium in Some Commercial Fish Species Collected from Markets in Monrovia, Liberia. International Journal of Advances in Life Science and Technology, 3(1): 1-8. DOI: 10.18488/journal.72/2016.3.1/22.214.171.124
The levels and health risks of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were evaluated in twenty-nine commercial fish species collected from markets in Monrovia, Liberia. A mixture of HNO3, HClO4 and H2SO4 was used for complete oxidation of organic tissue. Total mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption technique using an automatic Mercury Analyzer; while the concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Estimation of the dietary exposure of the consumers to these metals were determined based on data from the American Food Consumption Index and the associated health risks were evaluated by comparing intakes with the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes (PTWIs). The hazard quotient and total hazard index for the tested metals in all the species were less than the USEPA guideline value of 1, suggesting that the consumption of the tested fish species has no adverse health effects considering exposure to the tested metals.
This study contributes to the existing literature on heavy metal toxicity in commercial fish species and associated health risks to fish consuming populace. It is the first work of such nature covering a wide variety of fish species consumed in Monrovia, Liberia and thus provides a basis for future studies.