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(2017). Zoning of Natural and Man-Made Disasters for Relief and Rescue Centers Site Selection Using the Model Logic (Case Study: Guilan Rural Area). Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 4(1): 1-11. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2017.41.1.11
Guilan Province with vast forest resources and abundant rainfall which
sometimes causes flooding, fires, road accidents and earthquakes,
besides its tourist attraction, high population density and dispersion
of rural areas has faced with the problems that necessitate emergency
response centers against unexpected disaster with a balanced and
equitable access. In order to select stationary and mobile station sites
the potential risks were identified at first and then danger zones were
determined. Nine major risks including floods, earthquakes, mass
movements, fires, road accidents, snow and blizzards, marine incidents,
avalanches and war were paired compared using Analytical Hierarchy
Process (AHP). Then proper sites were determined based on required
standards for establishing relief and rescue centers using the model
LOGIC. Finally, 49 and 34 points were proposed for establishing
stationary and mobile centers, respectively. Also the radius of
effective range for each center was calculated based on a maximum
response time to the incident.
This study is one of very few studies which can be used as a template to
optimal site selection for relief and rescue centers in rural areas of
Granulometric Study of the Lokoja Sandstone, Mid Niger Basin, Nigeria
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(2017). Granulometric Study of the Lokoja Sandstone, Mid Niger Basin, Nigeria. Review of Environment and Earth Sciences, 4(1): 12-26. DOI: 10.18488/journal.80.2017.41.12.26
Grain size studies of the Campanian-Maastrichtian Lokoja Formation have
been investigated. The sand particles exhibit low sphericity which are
angular to sub-angular. Histograms showed unimodal and bimodal trends
and is predominantly asymmetrical with varying modal class, which may be
due to variation in transporting medium energy. The graphic mean ranges
from 0.1ф (coarse grained) to 1.35ф (medium grained) while the is
average 0.81ф (coarse grained). The dominance of coarse grained
particles and dearth of fine sands implies strong to moderate energy
conditions during deposition. The standard deviation ranges from
0.08ф-0.60ф (very well sorted to moderately well sorted); average of
0.40ф (well sorted), which may be due to rapid back and forth movement
of the depositing medium. The skewness ranges between -0.39 and 0.59
(strongly coarse skewed to strongly fine skewed), while the graphic
kurtosis ranges between 0.77 and 2.5 indicating playtykurtic to very
leptokurtic and this variation may be due to some of the deposits being
sorted in high-energy environment elsewhere. A Bivariate plot (simple
skewness vs. standard deviation) shows the samples plotting mainly in
the river sand zone. Another plot of mean size vs. standard deviation
also shows the samples appearing in the river sand zone; other
granulometric parameters that discriminates between river channel
deposits, overbank deposits and overbank-pool deposits shows that the
Lokoja sandstones plotted in the river channel zone. Linear discriminant
analyses signpost a shallow marine beach environment. From the Passega
diagram, majority of the samples plotted outside the featured fields,
only three samples plotted within the diagnostic parameter zone around
the uniform suspension-SR zone.
The study contributes to the existing literature on the sandstone facies
of the Lokoja Formation in the Mid Niger Basin based on granulometric
parameters to establish the depositional environment of the sandstone
and sedimentary process that occurred during deposition.