Animal Review

Publish by: Pak Publishing Group
Journal DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar

Online ISSN: 2409-6490
Print ISSN: 2412-3382
Total Citation: 4

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Effects of Age at Fattening On Butana Camel Males Carcass Characteristics in the Sudan


Pages: 17-25
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Effects of Age at Fattening On Butana Camel Males Carcass Characteristics in the Sudan

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Asma Himmed Mohammed Hamed --- Mohamed Elamin Elimam --- Solafa I.A.O.
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Asma Himmed Mohammed Hamed --- Mohamed Elamin Elimam --- Solafa I.A.O. (2014). Effects of Age at Fattening On Butana Camel Males Carcass Characteristics in the Sudan. Animal Review, 1(2): 17-25. DOI:
Twelve male Butana camels were bought from Gadarif livestock market at 2, 3 and 4 years old (four in each age group) and fattened for eight weeks in the Animal Production Research Station in Gadarif, Gadarif State, Sudan. They were weighed before the morning meal at the beginning of the experiment and then weekly. The animals were fed sorghum stover ad lib in two equal meals at 8.00 am and 4.00 pm Each animal was daily offered 2.0 kg concentrates. The animals were fed for two weeks as a preliminary period before fattening for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment the animals were fasted overnight, weighed and then slaughtered. Blood was collected and head, neck and legs were removed and weighed.  The animals were then skinned, eviscerated and body components were removed and weighed separately. The gastro intestinal tract was weighed full and empty. The hot carcass was weighed with the kidneys intact and then one carcass side was divided into 6 whole sale cuts and the cuts were then dissected into muscle, bone and fat. Data was statistically analyzed by analysis of variance for a completely randomized design using SPSS program. The means were compared using least significant difference (LSD). Slaughter weight, EBW and hot carcass weight increased with age at fattening and were significantly (P< 0.05) lighter at 2 years old. Dressing percentages on LBW and EBW increased with age at fattening and were higher on EBW. They were least at 2 years old and highest at 4 years old. There was significant difference between 2 and 4 years old and between 3 and 4 years old on EBW. All body components weight increased with age at fattening, except lungs, heart and spleen. Mean weights of blood, head, liver, stomach and intestines were significantly (P< 0.05) higher at 4 years than at 2 years old, but not significantly (P> 0.05) different between 3 and 4 years old. Hides, fore legs and hind legs weights were significantly (P< 0.05) heavier at 3 and 4 years old than at 2 years old. Lungs weight increased up to 3 years and then declined. All body components weight as percentage of EBW increased with age, except lungs, spleen, kidneys and heart and was not significantly different among age groups.
Contribution/ Originality
This study is one of very few studies which have investigated the effect of age at fattening on carcass characteristics of Camelus dromedarius. It contributes in the existing literature. The papers primary contribution is finding that slaughter weight, EBW and hot carcass weight increased with age at fattening in Camelus dromedarius.
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Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction


Pages: 57-64
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Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction

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L.Vijaya Lakshmi --- V. Sivaprasad --- P. Sujathamma
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L.Vijaya Lakshmi --- V. Sivaprasad --- P. Sujathamma (2014). Studies on Seasonal Performance of Newly Developed Bivoltine Silkworm (Bombyx Mori L) Hybrids Tolerant To Bmnpv and Effect of Temperature on Disease Induction. Animal Review, 1(4): 57-64. DOI:
Season and region specific studies of silkworm Bombyx mori L. are of greater importance in identifying and understanding the adaptability of silkworm genotypes, which are largely influenced by climatic factors. The performance of the newly developed hybrid combinations was evaluated for twelve economic  traits during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of the year to understand genotype and environment interactions and their stability under fluctuating tropical environmental conditions with Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedro Virus (BmNPV) inoculation @ 2x106 PIB’s/larva. The data was subjected to two way analysis of variance and season-wise relative merit of individual hybrids was computed following Multiple Trait Evaluation Index method. The index values indicated that the hybrids BNR9 x BNR10 and BNR9 x BNR4 with higher average cumulative EI values were ranked I and II and establishing their superiority over multiple traits.  Further the larvae soon after fourth moult were kept at room temperature (25ºC), low temperature (5ºC) and high temperature (32ºC) without feed for 6 hours and then inoculated perorally with BmNPV.  The newly ecdysed fifth instar larvae when exposed to low temperature of 5ºC and starved enhanced larval susceptibility to BmNPV while the hybrids BNR9 x BNR10 and BNR9 x BNR4 exhibited higher tolerance to BmNPV at 25ºC and moderate tolerance at 32ºC.
Contribution/ Originality
This study documents the evaluation of silkworm hybrids under BmNPV inoculated conditions during different seasons of the year. The methodology includes the estimation of the tolerance of the hybrids to BmNPV during various seasons influencing the physiological activities affecting their growth and development as well as the expression of economic characters.
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Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft


Pages: 1-9
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Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft

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DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar/2016.3.1/101.1.1.9


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Anwar Ul Haque --- Waqar Asrar --- Ashraf Ali Omar --- Erwin Sulaeman --- Jaffar Syed Mohamed Ali
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Anwar Ul Haque --- Waqar Asrar --- Ashraf Ali Omar --- Erwin Sulaeman --- Jaffar Syed Mohamed Ali (2016). Hydrostatic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Swimming Animals- an Inspiration for Hybrid Buoyant Aircraft. Animal Review, 3(1): 1-9. DOI: 10.18488/journal.ar/2016.3.1/101.1.1.9
In today’s world, the biological sciences are mostly considered separate from the existing modern knowledge of various other fields of sciences and engineering; however, there are many properties of nature and known facts of biological sciences that can be proved in the other domains of science and technology as well. Correlation of the geometric and buoyant properties of the swimming animals with the hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles is an example of this hypothesis. In the present work, some experiments related to the geometric parameters of a California sea lion were carried out. It was found that the fineness ratio of this animal is of the same order as the optimum value of that for the condition of minimum drag and power required for the buoyant aerial vehicle. The role of multiple fins on the elongated bodies of shark is also discussed in its application for yaw stability as well as to shroud the antennas that are used in the aircraft for various communication systems.

Contribution/ Originality
The paper's primary contribution is to show that the hydrodynamic and a few geometric parameters of a California Sea Lion resemble to that of the well-known facts of buoyant and hybrid buoyant aerial vehicles.
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  6. Haque, A.U., W. Asrar, A.A. Omar, E. Sulaeman and M.J.S. Ali, 2015a. A novel design of a hybrid buoyant aircraft- a potential greener solution for inter-connectivity of Malaysian Islands. 62nd CASI Aeronautics Conference and AGM 3rd GARDN Conference, 19-21 April, 2015, Montreal Canada.
  7. Haque, A.U., W. Asrar, A.A. Omar, E. Sulaeman and M.J.S. Ali, 2015c. Cambered profile of a California sea lion's body. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(8): 1270-1271.
  8. Haque, A.U., W. Asrar, A.A. Omar, E. Sulaeman and J.S. Mohamed, 2015b. Power-off static stability analysis of a clean configuration of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. 8th Ankara International Aerospace Conference, 10-12 September 2015 - METU, Ankara, Turkey.
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